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TWiM regularly receives listener email with corrections, comments, suggestions for show topics, requests for clarification, and additional information. A selection of these is archived on this page.
I have just finished listening to TWiM 92 and it was very interesting, as always. It is a pleasure to listen to all of you discuss these fascinating topics.
At the end of this episode, you talk about probiotics because it was a question from a listener, basically asking about the efficacy of these. I would very much like to hear a probiotic themed episode as my research/thesis area is in some way related to the probiotic/prebiotic area.
Two big names that come to mind are Todd Klaenhammer (North Caroline State University) and Willem de Vos (Wageningen University, Netherlands). Both are well known in the area of lactic acid bacteria research (which for obvious reasons is very intertwined with the probiotic research area).
Anyway, just thought I'd mention these names and thank you and your co-hosts again for the great work that you do, for making microbiology so accessible to everyone, and for teaching me about the great diversity that exists beyond my own thesis area! Keep up the good work!
(P.S. I also liked Elios' Small Things Considered snippets idea...)
Department of Biological Sciences
Cork Institute of Technology
My understanding is that each of the two existing Polio vaccines (OPV, and IPV) each have their own issues which might prevent them successfully eradicating Polio.
To summarize the issues:
• Because OPV replicates in the GI tract, it can mutate and revert to the wild-type (pathogenic) strain.
• IPV is delivered by IM injection. It protects against paralysis, but does not sufficiently inoculate the gut. As a result, people vaccinated with IPV can still be infected with, and shed wild-type Polio.
You have had many great discussions about these issues and many debates about whether either vaccine could be used to eradicate Polio. Theoretically immunizing with OPV would come very close to complete eradication, but would be stymied by the rare revertants. While there seems to be great uncertainty whether either vaccine could do the job, it does leave open another possibility.
Shouldn't polio eradication be possible if both vaccines are given to everyone?
If IPV was given first, and then a few months later OPV was given to every individual, that would seem to solve the problem. IPV would prevent paralysis, and a subsequent vaccination with OPV would provide gut immunity.
In this scenario there would still be rare cases of people mutating OPV into the wild-type virus, but those people would not be at risk of paralysis because out side of the GI tract they would be protected by their prior IPV immunization.
Eventually no one would be at risk of paralysis because of IPV, and no one would be able to carry or shed the virus because of OPV. At that point immunization could cease.
There are of course plenty of logistical issues with doing this. It would substantially increase the cost of immunization, and makes the job of distributing the vaccine regimen even more challenging, especially in areas embroiled in conflict. This means economic and political issues may prevent this approach from being successful, but hopefully it would solve the theoretical issue with either vaccine being used individually.
I apologize if you have already discussed this possibility. I try to catch everything but occasionally I'm forced to focus on what I am actually doing while I listen.
I had an interesting thought today while reading about problems with antibiotic usage. I am hoping some sort of answer is provided so that you can tell me I am a nut job or this is an interesting idea or somewhere in between please.
There is certainly a lot of study as to what comprises the microbiome. This has lead to ideas of weight control, mood moderation, and other health stasis attributes.
One thing that has always bothered me has been looking for the "safe" microbes, and not necessarily the balance. My thought was could people that have side affects from antibiotics actually identify a risk factor for items such as c-diff or even some cancers? The idea being that if a persons "balance" at an earlier date has a "normal" population ratio that increases the risk of the afflictions later in life.
This could be something to allow for earlier screening or modify future treatments for other ailments in the future. It seems like this idea is wide open?
Obviously the idea shares some aspect of using flatulence as a marker as well. Maybe a gas spectrometer measurement could provide a quick and easier route for treatment. Of course that seems a lot more varied with a lot more problems than idea of antibiotic side effects. The latter seems like a simple piece of medical history that could be readily studied.
Vincent & Friends
Long time TWIV listener. Used to listen to TWIM when is was on the TWIT network.
Temp in cube 78.8 F. Its always bright and fluorescent in the cube farm.
As a lifelong high BMI obese person I am always looking for research on obesity treatments.
Saw this study and wanted your comments
Can transplanting the gut microbes of low BMI people into high BMI people lead to weight loss?
Will this be a new angle for weight loss scams?
What kind of diseases could you transmit using gut microbe transplants?
Why not eat locusts? Assuming you can find any fuel to cook em, and apart from deficiency illnesses, I've always wondered why people didn't hunker down and harvest them for emergency food. Did original peoples endure swarms by eating them? Did Euro food aversions prevent eating in the midst of plenty? Are swarming locusts full of noxious alkaloids which render them distasteful or toxic? Am I full of it?
What am I overlooking? End of message.
Fresno. Weather sunny, meaning increased ozone smog, and warmer than normal. Dry, except for teasing.
Did locust swarms function as sort of restorative wildfires? Did they leave behind a refreshing load of nitrogen and phosphate on somewhat depleted soil, preparing for a rich regrowth of the plants as they sprouted in the following season, feeding on up the food chain?
Did they serve as a somewhat restorative protein feast for creatures, such as humans, who may have spent some years on relatively protein poor diets of corn and squash?
Did microsporidia play some cryptic role in the dynamics of any of this? Did they result in animal/human disease or adaptation?
Do you wish I'd think of all my inspirations before I sent the first letter, and wish I'd send them from the same address? Sorry. Asleep at the time of composition and gmail arousal.
In TWIM #92, you club India with Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria when talking about countries which still have cases of Polio. Please note that
The strategies for polio eradication work when they are fully implemented. This is clearly demonstrated by India’s success in stopping polio in January 2011, in arguably the most technically-challenging place, and polio-free certification of the entire South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization occurred in March 2014.
My source is WHO's website (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs114/en/)
I wish you were kindly more considerate when talking about countries you don't know enough about :-) Just because a country is poor now does not mean it takes its citizens' health any less seriously. My intention is not to offend, but rather to inform. I am offended though, being an Indian citizen and having relatives who have worked so hard to help make India polio-free.
I really hope you would correct yourself in the next podcast.
Laurene Mascola's distinctive voice and laugh has won my heart this month. I found that when TWiM came up for the third time in my playlist the last couple weeks, I kept listening just for a fix. She should be a star.
I'm glad you had a good reason for featuring her, and that she had a good reason for being with you. Great discussion, too.
S Dave of Fresno.
Sorry if this question is so elementary it is boring, but are the terms “autotroph” and “prototroph” synonyms? I read somewhere that, early on, the two terms were used synonymously. Unfortunately, that reading did not go on to describe any differences in the two terms as they are used today. I understand that prototrophs can make all their necessary organic molecules themselves, and therefore do not need organic molecules in their environment. Do autotrophs only make their own food? Are there autotrophs that must take certain other organic molecules in from the environment, ex. Amino acids or vitamins?
Thanks for your time
Ron C. Michaelis, PhD
Division of Life Sciences
Department of Genetics
Hi Twimsters, I'd like to make a follow up comment about Dr Swanson's comment that it doesn't matter what kind of bacteria are in any environment, but solely what sorts of metabolic pathways are there. I have heard this argument before, but i consider it not to be completely true because if that was the case then we would not have such diversity. I believe that this diversity, regardless of the repetition of metabolic pathways, is because each bacterium has a specific program which will be executed on specific conditions (diet, health,etc) depending on the bacterium. So we want to know what bacteria are in there, which pathways do they have, and under which conditions they are invoked.
I have several friends who take capsules of probiotic bacteria - lactobacillus, acidophilous and the star (apparently) bifido.
I have asked them, and I asked them to ask their doctors and nutritionists, but no one answers my two major questions about these probiotics...
1) What do these bacteria do in your gut?
2) How do they get to the gut if you are taking them in gelatin capsules. Don't they die in the stomach acids?
Loyal TWI X3 listener from the start.
(I used to be a high school science teacher, but I have retired and now spend time gardening and volunteering with little kids to teach science - it's a blast but they ask hard questions!)
San diego - 71 degree F (22 degrees C) light breeze (6MPH), sunny, 63% relative humidity - yes, just another day in paradise. I know - you don't do weather on TWIM but I wanted to brag!
Thanks for all you do!
Hello hosts of TWiM and TWiV,
I'm sending this to both podcasts because I'm interested in hearing what all of you have to say (I figure that I'm going to catch Dickson on TWiV, but if not feel free to ask him on TWiP).
I saw this question on Reddit today and thought I would put it to you all as well:
" If you could convince the entire human population of one thing, what would it be?"
Sydney, Australia (12°C and dark)
P.S. Welcome to Australia Vincent!
I've realized with all of the learning that I do on digital media that I don't always do the best job of writing notes - as I used to in the margins of books for example. This relates to your inspiring podcast since it is a major means for me as an RN to understand our relationship with microbes. I know that at this point you are barely started with the process of TWIM transcription. But, just for the sake of daydreaming, what would be a best case scenario of your audio --- backed up by an interactive transcript? When I think about the best possible learning tools that grow and change with the learner - I would like to see 2 things. First - a generic "important points at a glance" that shows up whenever you take a peek at what you've heard - you have a start with that but its not complete. Second - I wonder if there is a way to have a "reader/listener"s notes on that piece --- again that show up "at a glance" on a transcript or marked to listen to again on audio. Often the epiphanies of TWIM are hidden in offhand comments. Then I have to ask myself much later ----Dang - which TWIM was that in? By the way, I've been listening from the VERY beginning and listen to whole trifecta regularly --- TWIM, TWIV & TWIP
My tech savvy husband showed me the old school client that he uses - Thunderbird - and we installed Quick Notes on this email-client-without-the-email. We were able to write a note on the Prochlorococcus - and the note was stable on completely deleting the RSS for TWIM & reinstating it. BUT - I'm still at the whim of continuously aging / changing tech that can disappear - and my notes along with it. I want my notes to grow with me as I go through life as an adult learner - AND attach to the original document interactively. If anyone has any ideas on capturing the elusive audio epiphany as an enduring note --- let me know.
How long can food sit on a counter?
The conventional wisdom is that Thanksgiving dinner leftovers must be refrigerated within two hours. For example:
True or False?
Has there been any work to show the changes in the microbiome when someone takes a multivitamin (also I do recognize that all multivitamins are not created equally). I want to use this knowledge to assist me in picking my supplements more intelligently. Thank you so much for everything you do on the podcasts. If you just want to respond with sending me an article that would be perfectly fine by me.
My department recently invited Dr. Susan Erdman from MIT (http://erdmanlab.us) to speak, and I thought she would make a very interesting guest for TWiM. She spent a good chunk of her day chatting with graduate students here, including stuff about how gut microbes might influence food cravings, which reminded me of your discussion in ep 86; part of her research is on microbial effects on host hormones.
Just a suggestion,
long time listener, first time writer. I was just wondering, am I missing something really crucial? I've been reading in the news about Europe's "E.coli virus" everywhere. I have to assume that people are just mis-speaking and they mean illness not virus, but maybe there is a virus of E.coli that is released from the bacteria and are causing some sort of double whammy illness in folks.
Do you happen to know any more about this than I do?
Those of us who teach (undergraduate) diagnostic microbiology are sometimes caught in a dilemma.
On one hand, we need to teach students to process cultures (urines, throats, sputums, blood, stool, etc) and identify organisms that are commonly associated with those specimens..and we all know there are some potential pathogens in the mix.
On the other, we don't want to any kind of exposure incidences.
What recommendations can you guys make about how to handle this situation. We want to keep it "real." We feel the student will work with the organisms on an internship and then once they graduate so we want to make sure they are well prepared. We all wear PPE (gowns, gloves), practice good hand hygiene, and have a Class IIA safety cabinet. I haven't had (knock, knock, knock) any incidences, but I still worry.
I wanted to ask about a comment made by Cliff regarding Salmonella and potato salads. Working from memory, which I apologize if I am wrong, he talked about performing a fun experiment with Salmonella and potato salad. From my understanding, food poisoning from potato salad is not Salmonella sp. at all. Instead, food poisoning from potato salad is typically Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin B. So saying that Salmonella is not typically found in potato salad is true, but it can be misleading because you can still get food poisoning from potato salad with S. aureus. I guess that is not really a question, but truly more of a comment.
Prof. Szybalski might have been referring to a truck with a wood gas generator
Apparently they are still in use north of the border from where I live. (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_gas).
Best Regards from Incheon,
Hi, TWIM crew,
Often while reading articles or Micro textbooks, I see something along the lines of "bacterium X ferments sugar Y." Could you please provide more detail into what this terminology is actually referring to? Based upon my limited knowledge, I was under the impression that many different sugars eventually make their way through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, which is different than a fermentation pathway. I hope this email is clear and you can see the reason for my confusion.
Thank you for all you do!
All the best,
Why eukaryotes have bigger genomes
TWIM 81 "Cold Iron" email re: Cryptococcus genome larger than protozoa
The ingestion of an aerobic bacterium (= mitochondrion) by a Archean formed the eukaryote. The eukaryote mitochondrion has shrunk its genome to that whose ongoing activity is necessary for its metabolic function in the supportive cytosolic milieu; the rest has been shed with some intermittently needed sequences ceded to the nucleus. Thus the multiple mitochondria can support the maintenance and function of a helluva lot more nuclear DNA.
Is complex life a freak accident? (24 Jan 2012)
G'Day Team TWIM,
Regarding TWIM 77 where you guys spoke of bacteria stimulating sensory neurons to induce pain sensation and by doing so decreased the local immune response, I was wondering how various pain killers would effect this mechanism?
Thanks for all the great podcasts, and hope there's many more to come.
Regards, Scott. Perth, Western Australia.
I listen to your podcasts a lot. You always ask people to email in.
So, I have a really cheeky question - I figure it's worth an ask:
I'm an undergrad' biomedical science student in the UK, but I love microbiology. I'm currently writing my dissertation on "whether or not Phage Therapy is an appropriate avenue to pursue in the war again antibiotic resistance, specifically in staphylococcus aureus" (working title). I decided to look at phage therapy after listening to one of your podcasts.
If you are ever looking for a topic to review papers on, would you consider papers on phage therapy specifically against staph. A?
I've learned so much from listening to your podcasts. I would love to hear what you find and say about the above topic.
Hi Twim Folk -
I was listening to TWIM 77 tonight on the topic of S. aureus, mouse models, and pain. You discussed the parallels between the response to the microbe-generated agents with respect to triggering a response in the neural cells and the similar response to capsaicin, as well as the result of that response reducing inflammation. This made me think about the topical capsaicin products that are used for pain relief, and if their effect may come from a similar response.
I am working my way backward through the TWIM episodes and am thoroughly enjoying them. I’m a software engineer by training and profession, but have been working with biologists on a NIH bioinformatics project at Argonne National Laboratory for the last eleven years or so, and have been able to mostly keep up with your excellent explanations of the science.
Thanks for your great work,
Dear Dr. Racaniello and Associates,
I so enjoy TWIM, TWIV and TWIP. Thank you for providing such stimulating podcasts. You are a national, no global treasure and your contributions to both lay and scientific understanding will prove to be a lasting legacy.
I read this news clip about an interesting use of carbon nanotubes to stimulate T-cell growth. Please comment on where this new direction might lead. Are there any other breakthroughs in the programming and use of cytotoxic T-Cells to combat cancer you might wish to highlight?
Rick, DSc (Computer Science)
Greetings TWiM Profz,
As a person constantly associated with Clinical microbiology, I have seen the resistance grow up one by one. I couldn't agree more about the problem of using carbapenems, owing to MBL. In my personal experience, carbapenems have become almost "of no use". In last couple of months I have also begun seeing resistance to some last resorts, inc Tigecycline. And a couple of days ago, I have also seen a clear case of Colistin resistance. Tigecycline and colistin resistance is now well documented in literature, hence I'm not surprised. Your thoughts?
Clearly we are desperately in need of new battle options. One of the papers that I happened to have read recently in connection is Collateral sensitivity. I believe it is a TWiM able topic, at least a worthy discussion.
Use of Collateral Sensitivity Networks to Design Drug Cycling Protocols That Avoid Resistance Development. http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/5/204/204ra132.abstract
Thanks for everything that you do
Varun C N
Hi y'all! Haven't flirted with 40° recently, but San Joaquin Valley real humidity is higher than theoretical due to decorative and crop tree respiration, I think, despite severe drought. Air quality the worst, and better than it used to be. Ground level ozone cooks right up on still, sunny days, not to mention particulates with a breeze. So much for pleasantries I previously skipped.
Email writer on episode of Aug. 14 called attention to scrubs in hospitals, and cross contamination. My limited experience leads me to think those thoughts delightful, and heartily endorse it. Also, if a big place, imagine some of the hues!
Mostly moved to propose hypothesis re: the increase of scrubs worn promiscuously between hospital areas, but also in and out and home. Lack of locker rooms and time were mentioned, and deserve mention. Also, however, I believe many workers who are not surgeons have to buy and launder their own these days (the old binsfull tend to walk off, one by one, adding to facility cost). Why mess up street clothes, then?
Eh! I digressed from hypothesis. In current social environment, a certain pride in glorious, elevated status role in medical facility impels some of these garment decisions. I'm specially important, it hints, and busier than you. It extends easily to lab techs and nursing assistants. When observed in MDs specifically, however, it grabs the identity more simply than the longer white lab coat, and becomes a source of silent pride. This is concomitant with decline of physician/surgeon's role as social dignitary and repository of wisdom. Rather, dignity having been generally deflated (thank gawd) in recent culture, physicians/surgeons have become tradesmen. They also are finally no longer humiliated by mere lowly student status. They also really do have special skills and earnings to signify.
They are thus deflated by their own identity search, at base. They have abandoned role of interested, knowledgeable advisor, and slipped into that of mechanic or technologist of uncertain trustworthiness. This sociological trend has been proceeding for several decades.
Scrubs of identifiable hues, anyway, are a brilliant suggestion. So are locker rooms, and time in to-the-minute productivity demands to ceremonialize their use. They seem like a consciousness-raising device as well. Bottom line, the casual cross contamination is reminiscent of 19th century practice. It deserves attention.
Sorry. I shouldn't listen in middle of night, and submit to urge to share by writing.
All the best,
Dear amphitropical podcasters,
In TWiM 84 Melanie Thomson said she needing to come up with an allergy test for maggots before letting them eat people. Do the FDA and IRBs impose similar requirements in America? Does approval of maggots for use in America make it easier to get approval in other countries?
P.S. I have attached a photo of three _Lucilia sericata_, the fly licensed for use in the USA, eating a dead slug.
[vr: maggot therapy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maggot_therapy]
Thank you for all you do, I love to listen to all your podcasts as I am at the bench, I am a Medical Laboratory Scientist (new terminology for Medical Technologist).
In TWiM 85, when Michael described the Modified Hodge Test (MHT) near 53:30, he made two mistakes.
1) It was described that the lawn was of an E. coli that was resistant to carbapenems. That is not correct, it is actually sensitive to the carbapemens, and we do a streak of QC orgs and clinical isolates from the carbapenem disk (Meropenem or Ertapenem) out to the edge of the plate. If the isolate has certain carbapemenases, it does diffuse like Michael said, and allows the E. coli to grow closer to the disk.
2) Michael stated in essence that the MHT will detect MBLs. That is not correct. It detects KPC type carbapemases well in Enterobacteriaceae, but according to CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute), it is only 11% sensitive for the New-Delhi metallo-β-lactamase.
I also attached a recent paper from JCM on a possible way to detect carbapemases using LC-MS/MS in about 75 minutes.
Please keep up all the good work, I just finished my first Master’s course, heading towards a degree in biotechnology, I decided to continue on with school largely because of your podcasts (I started listening to TWiV in 2009), but only part time because I believe there is a lot to learn in a clinical micro lab.
Michael, MLS (ASCP)CM
Suzanne writes (re Aphids):
The best way to get rid of aphids in the garden (the ants in my yard love to herd them onto my okra) is a sharp stream of water from the hose. Aphids wash right off! They don't tend to come back right away, either.
While discussing the Siberian doomsday virus (TWiM 74 at 50:00) Michael wonders how the virus survived cosmic rays.
The only charged cosmic ray particles that can penetrate 30 meters of rock or ice are muons. Protons and electrons are absorbed.
I estimate half of muons get through, resulting in a dose of about 1 mSv per year.
Over 30,000 years the virus accumulates a dose around 30 Sv.
It takes 1,000 Sv or more to inactivate a virus. This value is similar for RNA, small DNA, and large DNA viruses. See reference below. So 30 Sv should just make the virus angry and ready to go on a rampage. Or maybe I'm thinking of the Incredible Hulk.
Radiation is even less effective on viruses in ice. The virus irradiation paper says so, and I had independently predicted the effect because most DNA damage is caused indirectly by hydroxyl radicals, which are less mobile in ice.
I look forward to papers about 300,000 year old viruses.
Particle Data Group review of cosmic ray propagation:
A 1971 paper titled "Inactivation of Thirty Viruses by Gamma Radiation" gives a dose threshold around .4 Mrad, which is similar to 4,000 Sv (gamma rays and muons both convert 1 rad = 1 rem = .01 Sv).
I can only say WOW…
What a funny coincidence. I heard a letter of mine read in episode 78 then, two letters later, you read Matt's letter. The coincidence is that I asked almost exactly Matt's question to my allergist not 2 months before you read it on your podcast. My doctor didn't think that nasal mucosal colonization was a "thing" so a transplant was unlikely to have any real effect. I don't think that he noticed my vulcan-like raised eyebrow at that answer and we went on with the visit. I will be sending him a link to the letter and the episode of the podcast. If he decides to test an off-label use of mucosal biota on me, then I'll try to let you know how it works. Thanks for reading "both" my letters and thanks for the encouragement.
While reading "small things considered" it was mentioned that chloroform was used to sterilize the soil in an experiment on exoenzymes. From behind the "paywall" I was unable to find vapor concentrations, but wondered if this could be used in the treatment of sepsis. Chloroform was used as a general anesthetic, but with some cardiotoxicity. Is there any data on using chloroform to treat sepsis in lab animals? I suppose there would be some concern about massive demise of the bacteria triggering a cytokine storm, like t[he Herzheimer reaction when siphylis was first treated with penicillin.
Your podcasts are wonderful and do so much to foster scientific literacy.
Don Kingsley Jr. MD
Pott's disease is tuberculosis of the spine causing vertebral body collapse and kyphosis.
Kyphosis is "curved", convexity backwards, as in the Hebrew "kefufa" referring to non-terminal forms of the letters
Anyone making a decision for respiratory isolation for tuberculosis should have been trained at least once to competence in the performance of a Ziehl-Nielsen stain. While a negative result does not change a clinical decision to commence respiratory isolation, a positive result instantly makes a whopping difference in the clinical picture.
There are things every physician should have learned to do, including a manual CBC in a Wintrobe haemocytometer, a spun haematocrit, a Wright's stain, a silver stallion sigmoidoscopy, a lumbar puncture, endotracheal intubation, etc. These are as basic as learning to ride a bicycle is for most people.
Surprisingly, most hospital labs do not even have the reagents for the Ziehl-Nielsen stain at hand. They should have single-use aliquots of the reagents in a freezer, so that even if the technician cannot do the stain, the physician caring for the patient should do it.
Oxygen dissociates from haemoglobin at various partial pressures. Foetal haemoglobin holds on to oxygen more avidly than in the adult because it has a lot less oxygen around. Deep sea fish haemoglobin is a champion in this regard.
Hello TWiM team,
I am a Medical Laboratory Scientist and I work in Microbiology at a small Hospital in Michigan. I also teach Cilinical/Diagnostic Microbiology at a community college to future Medical Laboratory Technicians (which is the associate degree level of hospital laboratory bench technicians). I am already thinking of ways to incorporate some of your discussions on Microbiology for my students. I will especially recommend episode 52 which can show the students how far they really can take their careers.
I have been listening to TWiM since June 2014 and have just completed episode 66. I have fairly long drive to work and I also am in the habit of listening to books and pod casts while I am working alone on weekends; which is how I have gotten so far.
As I was listening to episode 66’s discussion of C. diff I really had to laugh at how you found the wording “forms to the shape of the container” so funny! That is the exact criteria we use here at the hospital to determine whether or not a stool sample is suitable for C. diff testing. When I got to work I found the episode online and had my coworker listen this part of the discussion. We both thought the TWiM Team would really get a kick out of this too: If there is a stool sample that a tech is unsure whether it is diarrhea or not a stick test is performed. A wooden applicator stick is put it into the stool about ¾ of an inch. The container is tilted 45 degrees. If the applicator stick falls at an angle greater than or equal to 90 degrees than the stool sample is suitable for testing. This is the way it is stated in our procedure manual! It is hard to imagine, but we get a variety of stool samples and sometimes it is hard to determine if testing should be performed, which is why the criteria is defined in this way. I can’t wait to hear you have a good laugh at the expense of our stick test.
Keep up the good work. I love listening to this pod cast. Once I get caught up on TWiM I am going to start TWiP, and then TWiV. I am saving Virology for last because it has the most episodes and it is the subject I know the least about, but I am looking forward to knowing more. Thank you again for all the hard work and effort that goes in the creating these pod casts they are truly a benefit to the scientific community and the general population.
Rebekah MLS (ASCP)CM
I just ran across this commentary in Nature and thought you might find it of interest since many of your discussions involve the microbiome/microbiota.