- Adenoviruses are used in experimental gene therapy treatments to deliver therapeutic genes.
- Bacteriophages are being explored as tools to treat bacterial infections by targeting and destroying infectious bacteria.
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is responsible for the AIDS pandemic.
- Human papillomavirus causes cervical cancer.
- Influenza causes the flu, which killed some 21 million people worldwide in 1918.
- Lambda phage is useful in cloning DNA.
- Potyviruses cause disease in a wide variety of important agricultural plants.
- Tulip mosaic virus causes streaks in tulip petal coloration, resulting in flowers sold at premium prices.
- Variola major causes smallpox. Although eradicated worldwide in the late 1970s, remaining stores could be used to create deadly bioweapons.