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Letters

TWiP 19 Letters

Brian writes:

Hi, Vincent and Dick,

Love your podcast, and did not drink from the streams in Switzerland, because of the cows at all altitudes, even though your Giardia-cast only came up upon my return. I've attached a picture (jpg) of the Swiss version of vertical farming. This is far from the most precipitous slope we found cows on, having only a 20 percent or so grade, but its the only one we took a picture of...When the angle gets over 50 degrees or so, it's mostly sheep and goats, but some cows even then. If the cow-tipping phenomenon ever got started over here, the cows would probably "tip" down a few thousand feet.

Brian

Matthew writes:

Professors,

I just finished listening to Episode 17 and your note about the Israeli study showing that asymptomatic Giardiasis can result in higher growth rates in children than the control got me thinking. Forgive me if this is something that you have already covered, but couldn't a parasitic species (not necessarily Giardia in this case) eventually evolve into a symbiont and visa versa? Do we have any examples of this? Although we have bacterial symbionts in the gut tract, do humans carry any eukaryotic symbionts? Just curious.

Beyond that, I wanted to thank you for the free education that I've been getting through TWIP. As a layperson, I find it easy to follow along with your talks. The biology can be complex, there seems to be a great deal of intuition behind it as well.

Just for your own information, I found TWIP around episode 2 or 3 through I-Tunes. I was looking for a new science podcast and found TWIP pretty easily. I listen to each new TWIP while walking to from work and I've been trying to amuse my Facebook friends with anecdotes from podcast, (with mixed results). What can I say, living here in Washington D.C. it's wonderful to listen to a couple of guys talk humbly and rationally about things that they know and love. Anyway keep up the great work and best of luck.

Matt
Washington D.C.

P.S. My wife and I did a week in the Florida Keys this summer and I had Hogfish for the first time in my life. It was delicious!

Greg writes:

Dear Drs. Vincent Racaniello and Dick Despommier;

I am a student research assistant here at FGCU's virology research lab. I am hoping to get my degree and study clinical pathology and have recently begun listening to your TWiP podcast in addition to the TWiV podcasts. The question I have for you both relates to a comment made on TWiP that persons with Crohn's disease that become infected with Trichinella seem to get rid of the disease. Now, are there any mammalian viruses that can infect a parasite such as Trichinella while they are inside the host, and how do the mechanisms work that allow the immune system to adjust from auto-immune dysfunction of an IBD (such as Crohn's) to fighting an intracellular
parasite as the cure for that auto-immune disorder.

Greg
Florida Gulf Coast University

Reynard writes:

Doctors,

I have been listening to TWiP since the second episode and let me join the crowd of listeners who are similarly infected by your program and want more of it! If I had it my way TWiP would be a daily program. Your conversational style is didactic yet natural and I wish that many more scientists would follow your lead in their respective fields. What used to be a science of passing interest to me is now a source of frequent awe. I hope to return to University soon to study microbiology and TWiP helped to make that an easy choice. I thank you both for the time and effort to bring this show together. Keep up the great work!

Sincerely,
Reynard

Amy writes:

Hi doctors,

This break is too long.
I miss you guys!
Keep up the great episodes.
I love TWiV & TWiP!
Very interesting and very well presented. Your the best podcast I have ever had the pleasure to listen & learn.
Thanks again for all the work you do getting the Info to the public. I am so glad to hear that you really do enjoy putting together these podcast. Thanks again for feeding my brain.

Your fan and CA Vermiculturest AKA Microbe Farmer
Amy

Sophie writes:

Dear twiv and twip hosts - as usually I can't keep to one subject :)

I have a couple of questions and some answers for twip - leishmania.

First of all, Dick said that there was new and old world leishmania, but as i heard it, the "outbreak" in the US was imported from Europe, so is the Leishmania in the US of the old world strain. By the way - dogs with leishmania only get treated if they're symptomatic, as the medicine is quite hard on them.

There is something I don't really understand, it might just be me, but wouldn't it be better to have mosquitoes that vaccinates you against one thing and still can transmit the other, than having wild-type that doesn't do us any good - wouldn't there be ruffly the same amount of mosquitoes no matter what?

Jim writes:

For TWIP comment (link). Do you think this will be a very long lasting solution?

John writes:

Dear Dr's, Candidates, and Notable Notables,

Hello my name is John from Rhode Island. I'm a graduate student studying business with a background in economics. However, I find science, medicine and skepticism related podcasts to be the most interesting. I just wanted to comment that I found the podcasts, both TWIV and TWIP, to be very interesting. I think I first found TWIP through related podcasts from Dr. Crislip's Persiflager's Pusscast, another excellent podcaster. Anyway, congrats on the good shows, keep them coming and you do have non-scientifically trained listeners out there (but I suspect we're all science nerds anyway).

Sincerely,

John

TWiP 18 Letters

Avery writes:

Hello Doctors,

In episode #1 of Twip Dr. Despommier mentioned the gap between protozoans and nematodes with respect parasitism. I wonder if this claim takes into account the fish parasite Buddenbrockia plumatellae. Because its body is vermiform it was long thought to be a worm, but my understanding is that recent DNA analysis revieils it to be of the class cnidarian like jellyfish, hydra and sea anemones. This means, again by my understanding, that it is a parasite which falls between the aforementioned gap.

I am not a scientist and I might be misinterpreting the data. I discovered Buddenbrockia plumatellae while randomly following links on the Tree of Life Web Project. After reading the entry on this little guy I was struck by the idea that the body and behavior of a worm evolved in parallel in two separate organisms; I was also struck by the more general and somewhat eerie feeling that natural forms conceal more diversity and history than we are always able to know. I have read for instance that the complete extinction of one species or another of butterfly may have been obscured by the relative health of a neighboring species of butterfly with identical markings.

Anyway. Thanks you so much for your podcast and for giving interested people like myself an opportunity to learn from experts.

-Avery

Brent writes:

Hello TWIP!

I love the podcast!! I just read an article in the July/August issue of Mental Floss Magazine. The article talked about the research into a possible Malaria vaccine. The article focused on the research being done by Dr. Stephen Hoffman but it said work is also being do by others. Can you talk about the prospect of a vaccine for a parasite.

Thanks,

Brent
Washington, DC

Jim writes:

Faboo podcasts chaps ........twiv and twip.

Just listenening to twip no. 3 though and heard Dick say Aldous was Darwin's bulldog. He was the descendant of T HHuxley of course.
I Guess someone already corrected you , but heck............... glad to be of service.... I dunno much else mind you.

Mucho thanks.

jim

Valentine writes:

Hello Sirs,
I am writing for a couple of reasons.

First is to tell you I really like both the podcasts.

I'm just an ordinary nobody with only what science I picked up in high school and threw reading. I have picked up a lot more thanks to you. You make it very interesting even for those of us not in the "know".
Second and the reason for the subject line. Please please please let people know they can also get your podcast with a podcatcher. I don't use itunes I use Juice podcatcher. I found your podcasts on feedburner and twiv.tv. I believe you would get more listeners if they realized they can find and download your podcast with a podcatcher.

By the by Dixson (hope I spelled that correctly) has a great voice.

Valentine

Peter writes:

Gentlemen,

I know this is not part of the "Protozoic Parasites" focus of the show, but it is an amazing example of a parasite altering the behaviour of it's host:

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2010/aug/18/zombie-carpenter-ant-fungus

Regards

pj

Felix writes:

Dear Doctors,

having listened to your 3 discussions on Malaria I decided to get a
book on the subject.

Heading on over to Amazon, I couldn't see much that caught my eye except:

Mosquito: The Story of Man's Deadliest Foe by Michael D'Antonio, Dr
Andrew Spielman 2002
(for £4)

However, in the latest episode of TWIP you recommended:

The Fever by Sonia Shah (for £13)

which you say you have not yet read.

And then, following your advice, I headed on over to Meet the
Scientist to listen to the episode with Prof. Irwin Sherman, only to
find that he has written a book on Malaria (among others):

The Elusive Malaria Vaccine: Miracle or Mirage by Irwin W. Sherman
(for £28)

He also seems to have a new book out on the 1st Oct:

Magic Bullets to Conquer Malaria by Irwin W. Sherman (for £28)

So my request to Prof Despommier would be, once you have read Sonia
Shah's book (if you intend to), please advise your loyal listeners
which one book on Malaria out of the many available you would
recommend.

I am looking forward to your forthcoming episode on Malaria with Dr
Knirsch to learn even more.

You often say that such-and-such a friend or acquaintance of yours
would be a great guest - but they don't materialise!
I DON'T CARE you 2 guys together are all I need.

Live long and podcast!

regards,
Felix

Arsen writes:

Hey!

You asked us to design an experiment to confirm, if toxoplasmosis indeed increases the probability of mice being eaten in the wild. The constraint was that we shouldn't influence the behavior of the mice in any way.
What about if we measure cats instead?

We could take 2 remote islands. On one there would be no mice or cats infected with toxoplasmosis, on the other toxoplasmosis would be prevalent. Both islands would be habitable for mice, and would not have any natural predators for them (except cats, which we also would introduce). Also, besides mice, both islands wouldn't have any food for cats.

What we would measure would be the amount of fat the cats would have accumulated during the summer. If indeed toxoplasmosis increases the probability of mice being eaten, we should be able to detect statistically significant difference in the mass of fat, accumulated by cats on both islands.

Arsen

Akhil writes:

Hello Vince and Dick...

You guys are the foundation of my razor sharp knowledge on Parasitism and Viruses in my class. I hated it but I gave away the secret to my knowledge to other students in the class they are all subscribers now.

I am originally from India so I would love to tell you guys how to say Kala Azar (Black Fever). I would love to tell Dr. Despommier as his narration is impeccable and our king deserves every jewel in his crown.

It is said Kah-La like La La not Kay-la like Layla... Kay La means Banana in India.

Azar is said like Uh-Zur.... Uh from Uh-Oh and Zur from Leisure, Teaser, Seizure.

everybody writes quite formal emails... so i should say, you guys are totally RAD.

Hey Prof. Vince I am not smart enough to enter contests now but I will compete for Drobo by the time they have a neural chip.
Dr. Vince if possible please explain us any Virus Origin Hypothesis on Twiv.. sorry if I missed them on any podcast.
--
Thankfully,

Akhil

Raphael writes:

Good day, Drs. Vincent and Dickson!

Just sharing you a link through email from Symposier about Trypanosomiasis/Chagas' Disease, a good historical background as well as images and videos of actual parasite invasion of cells.

http://www.symposier.com/library_detail/7133/Norma-Andrews-Part-1-Trypanosoma-cruzi-and-Chagas-Disease

Raphael

Lars writes:

Hello Twip team,

Did you hear about the study that showed that Plasmodium falciparum
had jumped not too long ago from Gorillas to the human race.
http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N22255621.htm

Keep up the good work with the TWIV and TWIP podcasts!
As a Ph.D. student in plant/agricultural sciences I dont have much use
of the podcast content for my work but I really like to
listen to TWIP and TWIV while preparing samples and when i have some
spare time.

Greetings from Germany

Lars

Richard writes:

Dear Dickson and Vincent,

While listening to TWIP episode 15 "Tryp the light fantastic" Dickson referred to Rhodesia as being named after the Dutchman Rhodes.

Cecil Rhodes was certainly not Dutch. See if you can guess where he was from based on the following quotation, courtesy of wikipedia;

"Remember that you are an Englishman, and have consequently won first prize in the lottery of life."

Thank you for the wonderful TWIP episodes so far. Our research group recently started a programme looking at the impact of IRS on malaria in an area around Lake Victoria. Its a 21h drive from where I am based and we got through many, many episodes of TWIP and TWIV so far during the drive! Makes the time fly by.

Long live TWIP and TWIV!

Rick

TWiP 17 Letters

Bjorn writes:

Hi Vincent and Dickson,

I want to correct a statement you made in the trypanosomes episode. Apolipoprotein L-I in human blood kills only the subspecies Trypanosoma brucei brucei, whereas the East African subspecies Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and the West African subspecies Trypanosoma brucei gambiense have evolved mechanisms to escape the lytic Apolipoprotein. This means human infections with these two forms, if untreated, are always lethal. The good news is that through efforts spearheaded by the WHO the number of estimated infected persons has been reduced to about 60.000 per year [WHO 2006].

Thanks for your edutainment-podcasts,

Björn from Germany

Thomas writes:

Greetings Professors:

I originally got hooked on your show after discovering the treasures that awaited me in iTunes Podcasts, specifically Quackcast {Dr. Crislip whose droll sense of humor is quite like mine]. Eventually I discovered TWIP then as an added prize, TWIV. Since I am 71, I have seen the whole practice and concept of medicine change radically, as has almost everything else, in my lifetime. I always had an interest in medicine and back in the '70s even did medical histories for a "Free Clinic" run by volunteers varying in education from MDs to interested amateurs, like myself.

I have been watching the TV show that Prof. Despommier works for as a consultant [Monsters Inside Me]. Unfortunately the show reminds me all too often how so many of the people featured could have saved themselves a lot of time and discomfort if the physicians they dealt with had taken the time to take a medical history at the outset. In fact, I think the first question any doctor should ask is "Have you traveled to a foreign country, and if yes, when?" Also while it may seem wise when you hear hoofbeats to think horses, not zebras, as someone who has visited Tanzania, I always consider zebras as well as horses.

Anyway, your show has allowed me through listening to the same shows many times, to absorb some of the new concepts current in medicine today. Even though my mind is a poor shadow of what it was in my youth, I am still able to learn, just at a slower pace. I recently considered purchasing Mandell's two volume tome on Infectious Diseases. I put it in my my Amazon "shopping cart" where it sat while I gave some serious thought to whether I wanted to spend almost $350 to purchase it. I finally decided not to but found to my ultimate pleasure, that an Amazon "shopping cart" that has something in it and isn't acted upon in a reasonable time activates itself. I am glad it did as I am really enjoying reading it on-line and in the printed version. On-line access and "search" is an added feature if you purchase the book[s]. I think back to when I was a youth and there was a book Dickson might recall as he is advanced enough in years, titled "Not As A Stranger", an interesting novel that fascinated me as it was centered on the education that lead to acquiring an MD degree. How things have changed :-) I had an older copy of Mandell's [sic?] book on Infectious Disease dating back to the early 1980's and it amazes me how so completely a different approach their is to infectious diseases due to our current knowledge and emphasis on both evolution and genetics.

Anyway, continue with the great shows and realize your audience may extend beyond the boundaries of listeners you might have thought interested in it.

Thomas (flickr.com/photos/tbr18)

Dan writes:

Dear Vincent and Dick,

First, let me say that your podcast is fantastic, very informative, and enjoyable to listen to in the mornings during my commute. The reason I am contacting you both is actually less about the podcast itself, and more in regards to the subject matter, or, how one gets into it. I recently finished my undergraduate degree and am interested in going off to public health school in a few years. I've been interested in the infectious disease aspect of community/international health for a while now, and most of my undergraduate degree focused on medical anthropology and infectious diseases (basic biostatistics, ecology courses, a survey of infectious disease biology, and a class on disease ecology). I've been thinking about the graduate school path, and I know that the spectrum of eukaryotic parasites, particularly the protozoan-caused diseases, are what I would like to focus on. However, as most masters programs don't seem to have a particular "parasitology" concentration (with the exception of Tulane's MSPH...), I was curious what advice you two may have for someone interested in entering the field. Go into epidemiology? Environmental health? Population biology?

Any advice will be much appreciated! Thank you for your time,

Dan

Scotty wrote:

Thought you guys might get a kick out of this:

Why Captain Higgins is my favorite parasitic flatworm

Dicrocoelium dendriticum, I salute you.

Scotty

TWiP 16 Letters

Tom writes:

Dear Mr. Racaniello and Dick,

Thanks for TWIV and TWIP as both are great shows. Such a give and take of history, information and humor. Stumbled across TWIP several weeks ago and gave it a try. My only disappointment was there were not many podcasts. Thought I would try TWIV and to my delight found that TWIV was not a new podcast so there were many hours available for my listening enjoyment. No pressure here but if you can more than once a month would be great.

No disrespect to Dick in my greeting but I feel a certain familiarity towards Dick, so the greating Mr. Racaniello and Dick, as I happened to pick up some prime specimens of what he spent much of his academic life studying. Some ten year back I spent a bit of time bumming around Venezuela and as they say the rest is history. It was fun listening to the two of you cover this topic in episodes three and four.

Thanks for sharing your insight and humor with the rest of us.

tom
orcas island, WA

Jim writes:

Vince and Dick,

An hour-long Radiolab.org broadcast about famous tumors includes a discussion of the Tasmanian Devil tumors during which the question is asked whether these communicable tumors can be considered a parasite. What do you guys think? That segment is covered in about the first 15 mins. of the program.

http://blogs.wnyc.org/radiolab/2010/05/17/famous-tumors/

The HeLa cells are also nicely discussed and linked to polio research.... The Radio Lab guys do good work, just like you dudes!

Got ten buckets of great peaches off one of our two peach trees, finally, after ten years of trial-and-error; my lab.... Had to use malathion at the end and regret that, but the stuff sure works well.

Jim
Smithfield, VA

Heather writes:

Dear TWiP,

I am a 3rd year medical student here at Columbia. Dr. Despommier actually interviewed me when I applied and had a lot to do with my decision to choose this school, and then he told us about TWiV during a Parasitology small group session last fall and had a lot to do with my listening to this show when I should be studying for exams!

I thought you would get a few seconds of amusement from a medical student's interpretation of one of Dr. Despommier's lectures. Please see the attached PDF with a portion of my notes from the first Parasitology lecture he gave last fall.

Sincerely,

Heather

Marshall writes:

I just wanted to make sure you saw this:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-10654599

Apparently a mosquito has been genetically altered to be resistant to malaria. I haven't had a chance to read the PLoS article, but maybe you'll find this interesting.

TWiP 15 Letters

Eric writes:

Doctors Racaniello and Despomier,

My name is Eric and I am an undergraduate student at DePauw University, a small liberal arts institution in Greencastle Indiana. I am part of a science research program but because I don't have the capacity to conduct publication quality research with the resources at DePauw I have had to look elsewhere to get my laboratory fix. I spent last summer at the University of Notre Dame conducting informatics in a Toxoplasma lab with Dr. Kristin Hager and most recently took a semester off campus to spend 40 hours a week in the lab of Dr. David Roos at the University of Pennsylvania. My research thus far has centered around functional and comparative genomics in the Apicomplexa but I am fascinated by all things microbial. Now that I have left UPenn I really miss the research lectures and the conversations with people in the lab. TWiV and TWiP help fill this void as big names in research don't come to speak at little liberal arts schools.

Anyway I have a hypothetical procedure for tracking mice and monitoring behavior in infected vs. non infected mice. There are many different strains of Toxoplasma gondii but traditionally the Toxo community into 3 groups: Type I, Type II, and Type III. I'm not sure which type of strains are most likely to show up in wild mice but it would be interesting to see not only if infection changes behavior but if the behavior is strain specific. So first I would set up traps and capture wild mice. I would test them for the presence of Toxo as well as screen the positive mice for strain type. The different strains are well characterized (http://toxodb.org/toxo/) and we could use PCR and strain specific primers for the characterization.

The key step would be the tracking. One of my best friends is a PhD student in Dr. Giles Duffields lab at the University of Notre Dame. The Duffield lab works with Anopheles gambiae. Without ruining Sam's PhD project I will just say that the lab has developed what is essentially a nano-particle type GPS system. They can tag mosquitoes with the device and then release them into the environment, tracking the mosquitoes movement in real time. The hope is that the tracking will lead to a better understanding of how mosquitoes interact with their environment so that we can control the spread of malaria and other Anopheles vectored diseases. If this chip can be outfitted to a mosquito, I would bet that I could stick it in a mouse without changing mouse behavior.

Once released, all of the mice could be monitored in real time and behavior shifts should appear as changes in movement. It would not be necessary to try and capture any cats or recapture mice to find data because everything would be digitally tracked. This experiment would not help in terms of causation as to why the infection changes behavior but it would be a great indicator as to whether or not there actually was a change in behavior. Causation falls back to microarrays and analysis of Next-Gen sequencing, which I am hoping to dive into in grad school next year.

Without knowing exactly how the tracking particles work I can't outline much more of a procedure but I know the particles exist and the way they will be applied to tropical disease research is pretty amazing.

Keep cranking out TWiP and TWiV. I find them at the perfect level of comprehension for an undergraduate lab rat such as myself and I can't wait to see which parasite is next.

Eric

Terry writes:

Hello Vincent & Dickson

I absolutely love your podcasts and share both TWIP and TWIV with my microbiology students, as well as (when appropriate) my Anatomy & Physiology students.

I have two questions for Dickson.

1) In your ongoing malaria discussions, could you elaborate on the relationship between malaria and sickle cell (and other such interrelationships with malaria). I discuss this in both microbiology and during the blood lectures of A&P. (currently only 15 minutes through episode#10, forgive me if this is covered already).

2) Your stories of science history spark tales I heard back in the late 70's and early 80's of my undergraduate days and into grad school. I had some amazingly well read professors during my time at Midwestern State and at Univ. of North Texas. Those historical tales always thrilled me, and I love bringing those to life in my own lectures when I can. Do you have any recommendations for books of science history, especially those that are as intriguing as some of the tales you share on TWIP?

Many thanks - and please, keep up the good work!

Terry

Jim writes:

Professors:

Great TWIP 8, of course!

Additional listening about the vaccine for malaria in episode 49 of Meet The Scientists by Dr Irwin Sherman at: http://www.microbeworld.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=640:mts49-irwin-sherman-the-quest-for-a-malaria-vaccine&catid=37:meet-the-scientist&Itemid=155 It's about 25 mins long.

FYI:

Just saw reference to biohacking and saw this site, http://seedmagazine.com/content/article/the_biohacking_hobbyist/ and another, http://www.kk.org/cooltools/archives/000582.php , that indicate a possible trend.

Jim
Smithfield, VA

Jim writes:

Vince and Dick,

I heard an audio segment about tapeworm infection via cats and dogs that lead to liver cysts and death that surprised me. I thought tapeworms were confined to the intestines. So I googled the topic and see, as in this linkhttp://emedicine.medscape.com/article/786292-overview that there are several species, and primary or intermediary phases, and multi-organ infection in some cases. Please consider this topic for discussion in a future episode of This Week in Parasitology. The linked article was authored by a couple folks in your neck of the woods in case they are willing to participate in the discussion.

Jim
Smithfield, VA

Jim writes:

Gents,

Have diagnostic conditions changed for parasitology from this quote in a 10-year old text?

"Diagnostic methods for protozoal diseases have not changed fundamentally for many generations, and the sophisticated devices used for bacterial and viral detection have not yet reached the parasitology laboratory. Cultivation methods for pathogenic protozoa are difficult, and a correct diagnosis often depends on direct observation of tissue specimens together with a sense of intuition and understanding of the patterns of disease..."

p. 487, "Fundamentals of Microbiology" 5th ed, I. Edward Alcamo, Ph.D, c1997

Dr Alcamo was at SUNY when the text was published. Perhaps he would like to comment?

Jim
Smithfield, VA

Jim writes:

Sent a reference to it and comment about outhouses on piers over lakes by Scandinavian settlers to
Prairie Home Companion. Expect to hear about it in an upcoming Lake Woebegon segment.

Jim
Smithfield, VA

PS:
#8 was good, too, but nothing beats your reparte.

Todd writes:

Hi Guys, I heard you on Futures in Biotech and just yesterday decided to download all the Twiv and Twip podcasts and add you to my RSS reader!

I'm not in the medical field, but have an intense interest in science and technology, and I have been impressed with your ability to break the information down for the laypeople in your previous appearances on FIB, so now I'll be getting a regular dose of you directly.

When my fiancee came home last night, I told her about your podcasts, and she told me she had just rec'd and email from a friend with Ulcerative Colitis. This poor woman has suffered terribly with it for years and has found little to control it. In this email she mentioned that she was considering Helminthic Therapy, mentioning also it involved parasites, and my fiancee wondered if I had heard of such a thing. I had not...we discussed therapeutic maggots, a topical use, but I was not aware of anything that would be injected or ingested, so I checked online for the answers and decided I should just ask the experts.

Any information or opinions I could pass onto our friend would be appreciated.

Thanks for your continued great work.

Todd
Denver CO

TWiP 14 Letters

Sarah writes:

To my favourite scientists,

I am a high school student from Serbia and microbiology is my passion; I plan on going to university and studying it. I wanted to tell you both how much I enjoy the TWIP podcast! I especially enjoyed the one about tapeworms. I urge you to do the show weekly! I can't wait until the next one! Keep up the great work!

Geoffrey writes:

You may have already been alerted to this one:

Flying Vaccinator: a Transgenic Mosquito Delivers a Leishmania Vaccine via Blood Feeding.
Insect Molecular Biology
Vol 19 Issue 3 (June 10)
pp. 391-398

Prasad writes:

Hi Dick and Vincent,


I love your podcasts, TWIP and TWIV. Although I am a virologist and think that viruses are the most amazing 'things', with your podcasts I have come to appreciate the parasitology as well. I think Dick will like to know that I work on Dengue.


My recent pubmed search led me to this article in current biology titled 'Plasmodium falciparum Accompanied the Human Expansion out of Africa' by Tanabe et al. It talks about origins on P. Falciparum. I know that TwiP has moved on to other parasites, but it will be great if you can explain the controversy of malarial origin a little bit more.


In any case, I am over in Singapore currently and if any of you are in this part of the world, drop me a mail. I can show you around.


Thanks for the podcasts. Keep them coming.

Regards,

Prasad

Spencer writes:

Hi Vincent and Dickson,

I often see patients with addiction problems. Now one month into TWIP withdrawal, I can sympathize. Please press onward with this fascinating podcast series. I am a cholesterol and lipid specialist and run a testing and referral center in New Jersey where I see patients with complex lipid and metabolic disorders. Are you aware of any crossover from the microbial world in terms of inflammatory influences on the vasculature that can lead to advancing atherosclerosis? For example, we know that an inflammatory marker, C reactive Protein, which has been precipitated from patients with pneumococcal infection may be an independent marker for atherosclerotic risk and additionally may be a target of therapy.

Thanks,

Spencer

Mitch writes:

I came across this joke online today and thought you guys would appreciate it:

Taenia solium walks into a bar and the bar tender says "we don't serve your kind here" Taenia solium replies "Well, you're not a very good host."

Mitch

Kieran writes:

I just wanted say thank you for all your time and effort put into the creation of both TWIP and TWIV, they represent the very best in podcasting and show exactly how hugely beneficial they can be.

TWIP is especially fascinating and illuminating and every two weeks is not enough to do justice to the breadth and inters of the subject. It would be brilliant to here something of fungal parasites, espically with the wide range of strange and distincict behavior they exhibit, e.g. Cordyceps unilateralis and the affect it has on its hosts behavior.

Again thank you for the great work, and yours very humbly,

Kieran

Marc writes:

Thank you for a wonderful podcast series [so far...] !!!

I've got one correction to make (just listened to the tapeworm episodes): it's a megaloblastic anemia, because vitamin b12 is needed for DNA synthesis and NOT for the hemoglobin.

And a question: why the heck are those life cycles sooooo complicated? does any one has an idea how they evolved? maybe dick has some good ideas on that....

I plan buying the parasitic diseases book, but I noticed it's from 2005, and the edition before was from 2000.... so be honest: is there a new edition coming out soon - please tell me if so ;-)

greetings from freiburg in germany

Michael writes:

http://www.deadlysins.com/guineaworm/foundation.htm

Can you believe this. There is an organisation trying to save the Guinea worm...now I've heard it all.

Michael

TWiP 13 Letters

Kevin writes:

I was googling the internet after listening to TWiP 9 where there was a mention of the tongue parasitic isopod. From the looks of this published paper, that is the real deal. http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms1(2)09/10.pdf

I will never eat sushi again.

Also, for her birthday I got my mom a copy of the book Vincent recommended about Henrietta Lacks, and it was the best gift I've given anyone in years. Thanks! :)

Mitchell writes:

Hello Dr. Despommier,

I am a microbiologist currently working to develop a TB diagnostic device and I must first let you know that I very much love your show. I was somewhat skeptical that I would be as big a fan as I was (am) of TWiV when your first episodes came out, but I really like the distinctly narrative style of your show. The stories and anecdotes are really great and provide a much needed aspect to science communication.

The real reason I am writing, however, is because I get a "Word Spy" email every week about neologisms and your name showed up in the first ever recorded citation of the word "farmscraper". It doesn't say that you coined it, but your name is now forever associated with this. Maybe this is a bigger deal to me than to other people, but I think it's pretty fantastic. Here's the link:

http://www.wordspy.com/words/farmscraper.asp

Anyway, I enjoy the show and I also heard and enjoyed your recent interview on Futures in Biotech. You read a lot of emails that say your show should be every week, but I'd like to give my controversial opinion that once or twice a month is perfect. I think it gives you more time to go deeper into the history and the stories, and it allows me to focus on the show. I often don't get to listen to the whole thing at once, and I will often end up with several TWiV episodes piled up. I don't want to feel like your show comes so often that it loses its intensity.

Thanks for the geat podcast. Keep them coming!

-Mitchell
Pittsboro, NC

Greg writes:

You've probably seen this but it's an interesting article concerning Toxoplasma and it's possible influence on the personalities of entire nations.

http://mblogs.discovermagazine.com/loom/2006/08/01/a-nation-of-neurotics-blame-the-puppet-masters/

Greg Hampton
Virginia Beach

Jim writes:

Vince and Dick,

The 2 Jul 2010 podcast from AAS Science, at http://www.sciencemag.org/about/podcast.dtl, has a three minute segment (attached) 25 minutes into the podcast that discusses the question, "Do parasites affect intelligence?", but does not make reference to Dr Despommier's comments made in a previous TWIP about the historic impact of hookworms in the Southern US. Does this current work confirm or extend Dr Despommier's hookworm discussion? Listeners can also see the transcript of the podcast and this particular part by going to page eleven of a downloadable PDF file athttp://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/329/5987/97-b/DC1 .

Jim
Smithfield, VA

TWiP 12 Letters

Maria writes:

Dear Dr. Dickson Despommier and Dr. Vincent Racaniello

I am a microbiologist. I studied in Colombia and after finishing my bachelor's I moved to New York city in 2007. All my life I have been fascinated about microorganisms. Some weeks ago I found an interesting blog about social media and microbiology, a talk that Dr. Racaniello gave in Scotland not so long ago. Listening to his approaches in the study of viruses and the use of media in his teaching to bring information to his students and other people in different ways got my attention.

I am one of those who think that knowledge is the backbone of success and more important to be able to share this knowledge is the key for a successful society.

After listening to his speech, I found twiv and then I found twiP... wow!!! what amazing podcast!!!! I start listening to TwiP and now I have become addicted to your voices and learning from you two.

The first episode of TwiP Dr. Despommier talked about his beginnings as a parasitologist and you made me remember my professor in college, Dr. CJ Marinkelle. He was an excellent professor from The Netherlands who has taught in Colombia for decades and I had the privilege of being one of his students. He used to tell us stories about parasites in Africa when he was practicing medicine back in the 1940's, the same way as you did in the last episode about sparganosis.

As I told you, I studied microbiology in my country. My desire is to do a PhD and be able to work in research. This idea has been always in my mind, unfortunately I have not been lucky enough to get into the programs that I have applied. However, I am a little stubborn and I keep pursuing this dream. As Dr. Despommier said..." sometimes when one door closes another door may open". In the meantime I have volunteered in Cornell Medical College and in NYU, working with Plasmodium falciparum.

I just want to say thanks for this amazing team that you two have there, and for bringing us a wonderful time every two weeks in TwiP and every week in TwiV.

Thanks

Maria

Don writes:

I was reading my second favorite blog:

Bruce Schneier http://www.schneier.com/, which is about security, especially computer-related security, and which I highly recommend.

Today, there is an entry entitled Insect-Based Terrorism, relating the tale of a conference at the University of Florida promoting fears of a terrorist attack based on mosquitoes or some other insect disease vector. As I read this piece, I found myself wishing I had the depth of knowledge you guys can bring to a topic like this. If you have a chance, maybe you could take a look at this and, perhaps dispel a myth or two.

The Twiv podcast is definitely my favorite bloggish information feed, and I listen to it on my long commute just as soon as I can download it.

Twip would be right up there, but I find myself succombing to the ick factor and often delay a few days before listening to it. Somehow viruses don't do it, but I can't listen to Dick talk about worms without feeling them squirming about in my guts. I sure am glad I don't have loads of parasites, but my imagination runs away every time, and for a while I am sure I have whatever icky new parasite Dick is talking about.

I have long been fascinated by biology, and love listening to you. You have inspired me to treat myself to a subscription to Nature as a Christmas present, and while I don't have time to read it all, I am proud that I can manage to read at least a sampling all the way back to
the Letters.
--
Don


Greg writes:

I heard about your show while listening to Futures In Biotech. After listening to the episode about Malaria, I posted on Twitter that I thought you two were the Abbott and Costello of Parasitism. I can't believe that my new favorite show concerns something I know nothing about and was totally disinterested in until I heard Dickson's story about Frog legs in TWIP #8. Thank you so much for both the information and entertaining style of the show.

Greg


Douglas writes:

Hi Guys,


Great work with TWiV and TWiP - best science podcasts out there.

An interesting link you might like is Parasite of the Day. You've probably heard of it already though.

PS.

I've been cringing recently whenever you pronounce Edinburgh as "EDIN-BOW-RO". It's "EDIN-BRUH" :D

Regards,

Douglas

Etienne writes:

Hello Dick and Vincent,

I love the show and I can't wait for every new release. I find it both informative and entertaining.

One question I have is why there is one type of parasite that seem to be missing from your discussions? Plants have parasite too and can be parasites, but they do not seem to fit in the classification system introduced in the early shows. It's true that they are not important in a disease sense but some of them have significant economical impacts.

A common example of a plant parasite is the mistletoe that germinate and burrow in tree branches to connect to the plant circulatory system.

A more agriculturally relevant example is the striga, a root parasite of many major crops that reduce productivity significantly.

An other popular example is the Rafflesia arnoldii or corps flower the biggest single flower in the world. That entire genus is composed of endoparasite of a genus of tropical vines.

I find parasitic plants a fascinating subject but sadly they seem to be to often forgotten by parasitologist. I hope TWIP will in the future approach the subject.

Etienne


William writes:

Dear respected colleagues,

Your have heard from me before. I am the private physician who discussed your liberal/progressive political bias. I loved your human interest story of the young woman who died of malaria with the collapsing dominoes ending in cardiac resus and splenic rupture. That is the best way to communicate to young physicians. I never forgot those teachers who told those stories or my own similar experiences.

I trained at LA County General/USC. Much of my experience was with illegal immigrants. All of the drug resistant TB was coming in from Mexico/illegal immigrants in addition to many other illinesses including leprosy. Do you think the present Obama administration approach to illegal immigration (threatening the citizens of Arizona) is in the best health interests of the citizens of Arizona and America? Or did I misread the "terrible situation in Arizona".? I am a strong supporter of immigration - legal. If your children were at risk from drug resistant TB in grade school, might your stance be different?

I used an analogy when teaching HIV. Naive T-cells had to go to thymus U. They had to pass one test and fail another or they were disposed of. You get the idea.

Very respectfully,

William

Jim writes:

Night soil is used as fertilizer in some countries but not in the US because of health concerns about parasites and disease transmission. Have any countries developed simple methods of curing night soil to eliminate this hazard?

I understand that while urine is part of night soil, it's not considered a health concern as are feces. Is that correct? With all the supplements I take it seems that one of the best fertilizers for my garden may be my own urine. It would sure help offset the pharmaceutical cost and be a great recycling concept. On the other hand dog pee kills grass, so must any urine be aged or cured...? Does using urine sound reasonable?

Jim

TWiP 11 letters

Sophie writes:

Hi Dick and Vincent,

I still love both of your podcasts and was very pleased when Dick referred to Claudius as I love the books about him. This malaria themed podcast made me realize that the historical part of parasitism is so interesting (I'm talking about the really old stuff), and although it is very difficult to say much about this, I would really like to know more about parasitology and their influence on history.

- Sophie

Erin writes:

Dear Vincent and Dick,

I have been fervently enjoying your podcasts since I learned about them a few months ago from Rich Condit himself. I am a grad student at University of Florida and I am on a training grant that he is involved with. I have been trying my best to catch up with your TWIV episodes, and I was delighted when you started TWIP. I study a protozoan parasite called Babesia bovis, which I bet Dick is aware of (believe me, most people are not).

I just listened to the TWIV episode in which Dr. Condit tells you about our seminar program where students get to present the speakers' papers to them after the talk. Wouldn't you know, I am one of the lucky students who gets to present to you! Of course I did not realize this at the time I was assigned to you - I was just annoyed that most of the speakers were virologists (not a single parasitologist, how surprising...!) and terrified because I know so little about virology. Presently I feel slightly better about the virology aspect after listening to so many of your informative and entertaining podcasts. However, you have become somewhat of a celebrity to me but don't yet know I exist, which I was beginning to feel a little weird about. Hence, this email.

I am very excited to meet you and I think you should bring Dick along. I will take him fishing in my canoe!

Also, I have a suggestion for a podcast topic, which could actually be covered on either TWIV or TWIP. The particular aspect of Babesia bovis that I study is its ability to undergo rapid antigenic variation, which I'm sure you know is not unique to this organism. I think people would be interested to hear about antigenic variation and how it allows pathogens to evade the host immune response. Also, you could talk about antigenic shift and drift, and the differences between those three events. Sorry if you've already covered this topic - like I said, I haven't quite caught up yet.

Like Dr. Condit, I enjoy your podcasts most while on my daily bicycle commute. I truly appreciate the opportunity you've given me to learn something during this otherwise uneventful part of my day. My other favorite podcast is "This American Life" - if you haven't heard it, please give it a listen. In fact there is an episode (no. 404) called "Behind Enemy Lines" that has two stories about parasites, including one about a man who purposefully acquires hookworm (by stomping around in tropical third-world country latrines) to ease his allergies and asthma.

Sorry for all the rambling, thanks again, and I very much look forward to meeting you.

Cheers!

-Erin-

p.s. One of my cats is chronically infected with tapeworms despite my best efforts to eradicate them. I find lots of little proglottids in her favorite sleeping spots, and sometimes I find 2-4 inch long, flat, crusty worm segments that look like rice noodles. I'd be happy to save one for you!

anonymous writes:

I am a little behind on both TWIV and TWIP, but as I was listing to the trichinella, while collating appendices,  I had a thought.  I have read/heard over the years that the lack of parasites in our society is related to the high incidence of allergies and autoimmune diseases.

I will fully admit this may be a stupid question..

 

When looking into making vaccines for parasites (as Dick mentioned has been done), has it ever been considered as a way to stimulate the immune response (without causing any disease) to help prevent/treat allergies and autoimmune diseases?  Just thought it was an interesting idea.

anonymous writes:

I listen to at least a dozen podcasts regularly and sometimes I don't have time for every episode, but TWIP and TWIV are two that I never skip.  I'm always entertained and always learn something.  It's  not at all related to my present occupation, (electrical engineer working on rockets), but maybe that's why it's especially interesting because it's so different.

1) Question:  I'd be interested if you could cover diseases that we can get from our pets as I have several dogs and a couple of little kids.  I wonder what kinds of scary parasites you can describe that can help keep me up at night worrying.  At least we are in Arizona so we don't have many fleas or ticks around ( I guess it gets too hot?)

2) Tip:  http://www.giantmicrobes.com/ Check out this website and the cool stuffed bugs, germs, viruses etc.  Stuffed bears are entirely over represented in the stuffed toy world.

PS.  I need TWIP to be more frequent.  Please.  Thanks for all the time you guys put in to this.  It's very much appreciated.

PPS.  If you ever change your tag line at the end it could be " Another TWIP... is in your brain"<

Duncan writes:

Guys,

I thought this news item might interest you:

http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2010/05/13/2898296.htm?section=justin

"Health authorities are warning of the dangers of eating slugs as a Sydney man battles a rare form of meningitis.

The 21-year-old caught rat lungworm disease after he ate a slug as a dare some time ago.

He is now in a critical condition in hospital.

The disease is caused by a parasitic worm that is carried by slugs and snails.

In some instances, the worm can cause fatal swelling of the brain and spinal chord.

Doctor Jeremy McAnulty from New South Wales Health says these cases are rare and most people can recover.

"It goes away by itself because the body's immune system will eventually get rid of it," he said.

The disease can also be caught from raw vegetables or fruit which have not been washed properly."

Cheers, Duncan

Australia

Vincent writes:

Folks,

I am sure someone has sent in this article, but I thought I would bring it to your attention if not.

http://www.news.com.au/national/man-battles-for-life-after-eating-slug/story-e6frfkvr-1225866012092

Keep up the wonderfully good work on both podcasts!

-Vincent

Michael writes:

http://www.news.com.au/national/man-battles-for-life-after-eating-slug/story-e6frfkvr-1225866012092

Man eat a raw slug and gets the rat lungworm

Michael writes:

Since we can't get enough of TWIP, I have started a facebook group on Parasites and Parasitology. Feel free to cross post on it and spread the word.  I have linked this website to the group and perhaps you would do the same.

Kind regards

Dr. Michael

John writes:

I love both TWIP and TWIV, but I need more frequent TWIP podcasts!!  Too much waiting gives me digestional problems.  So, due to my failing health, I need more frequent TWIP productions (much more, if possible).  Of course I don't have a Doctor's note, but I am working to get into the Microbiology Ph.D. program at UF and I can't handle the extra stress ;)  Hook us up, guys, we need our "fix."

Thank you for the awesome shows

Nora writes:

Hello Drs. Racaniello and Despommier,

I am an avid listener to TWiV and just recently am catching up on TWiP.  I work in the Biotech field, formerly in clinical viral production and now antibody production.  I specialize in large-ish cell based production I suppose.  well virology will always be close to my heart.

 

Anyway, I have a couple of comments for TWiP, I have only listened to the first couple of episodes so hopefully no other listeners have beat me to this.

On the first podcast you said that there are no parasites larger than insects.  I believe I have thought up and exception.  The cuckoo bird would be a parasite.  Wikipedia lists it as a "brood parasite".  I would love to be the first listener to have though of this as you have a very intelligent listenership! :)

In the second podcast you discussed Ivermectin, just an interesting side note, this is also used extensively for horses.  It is part of the "wormer rotation" used against round worms, bots, etc.  (my bachelors degree is in Equine science).

I wonder if you wouldnt do an episode on Tuberculous.  I find this disease very interesting and it is making a world wide comeback.

Thank you, keep up the great work,

Nora

TWiP 10 letters

Beki writes:
I am a second year graduate student, and the lab that I joined works on Leishmania and Trypanosomes. I originally discovered TWiP via TWiV (where my true interests are - but that is a long story; Matt Frieman came and gave a seminar and gave a small plug for TWiV).  I am really excited to have the opportunity to listen to highly informed people talk about parasitism.  I request more frequent episodes - I will start preparing for my qualification exams soon and I am sure that this podcast will be invaluable - especially if you get to Leishmania soon (hint,hint).

I would also like to say that listening to a podcast is like having a viral/parasitic infection - usually there are only a few people that show clinical symptoms (i.e. send an email or post a comment), but there are usually many more who have asymptomatic infections (i.e. just listen).  So in the end, there are many people who would like more episodes, but only a small percentage will actually contact you to request more.  I am very grateful for the time you both take to prepare and do this podcast - keep them coming!

Bernhard writes:
Dear TWiVers and TWiPers, Last time I just suggested a Pick of the Week, but now I'm ready to pose a question: In a science news compilation, I recently learned about the work by Shigeto Yoshida et al. of Jichi Medical University (supposedly reported recently in 'Insect Mulecular Biology') on genetically engineering mosquitos to secrete an antigen from Leishmaniosis in their saliva. The idea being that being bitten by such a mosquito would trigger antibodies against the protozoans. The regulatory issues with such an approach are, however, quite severe since you cannot control who 'gets the shot'. However, I've since heard a podcast on Australian wildlife being threatened by picking up diseases from farm animals and species introduced by the Europeans like rabies. Would it be possible to use the above approach to immunize wildlife, say, using a mosquito that's specific to the wild animal and doesn't bite humans? Would the supposed specificity help with the regulatory issues and provide a 'proof-of-concept' for the approach?

Just an idea.

Hope you can keep TWiV and TWiP going for a long time!

Bernd

Ryan writes:
I love the podcast!  I am a grad student in microbiology and this podcast along with TWiV is a great part of my week.  I study bacteria so we need a TWiB too! Thanks again

Ashlee writes:
Dear Dr. Despommier, My name is Ashlee and I am a graduate student at CUMC and an enthusiastic fan of both TWIP and TWIV. Recently, I was listening to the podcast "This Amercan Life" episode 404 entitled "Enemy Camp" which features a segment called "As the Worm Turns". This brief story was about a man who believes that hook-worms have cured him of his allergies and asthma by acting as immune system modulators in an example of what  has been coined the 'hygiene hypothesis' for immune system dysfunction. The man  subsequently went on to sell his hookworms to other individuals  under the guise that they are a 'cure-all' for autoimmune disorders until he was threatened with arrest and fled the country.

http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/404/enemy-camp-2010

Considering that 'This Amercian Life' has such a large audience, I'd imagine that this story has generated a lot of interest in the 'hygiene hypothesis' among the general public and would make a great topic for an upcoming TWIP episode.  Having had an interest in autoimmune disorders and the hygiene hypothesis in particular for years, I think it would be great to hear your take on this as an expert in the field of parasitology.

Sincerely, Ashlee

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