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TWiP 34 Letters

Raihan writes:

Hello Professors Racaniello and Despommier,

In TWIP #33, Dr Despommier said that certain parasites do not need receptors to enter cells, while Dr Racaniello then said that all viruses require a receptor for entry. I might be wrong but don't certain paramyxoviruses like Respiratory Syncytial Viruses enter the host cell by mere membrane fusion? I hope I'm not missing the point here, but i remember being taught in my undergraduate course that there are a certain class of viruses that don't need a receptor at all.


Steve writes:

I first read of the Red Queen's Hypothesis in Parasite Rex by Carl Zimmer, which list Dr. Despommier in the acknowledgements. Recently there was an story in The Wall Street Journal: "Why Sex? To Keep Parasites at Bay, of Course" by Matt Ridley. I believe it would be very helpful to hear your thoughts on the Red Queen's Hypothesis.

Thanks, we appreciate all of your great podcasts.

Scott writes:

Vincent & Dickson,

I listened with great interest this afternoon to the TWIP story on malaria vaccine (via Science360 - I am not an academic, but a true science junkie). My keen interest is due to the fact that I lived in Nigeria for some time and suffered from P. falciparum infection seven times before I was finally able to build enough immunity to not suffer mightily. No cerebral, thank goodness! But it left me with a passion for watching developments in the study of the parasite and the science of malaria control.

In listening to the part on the TWIP podcast about the locus of injection site being critical to efficacy for this possible vaccine candidate, a thought occurred to me: Since mosquitos are so adept at finding blood vessels from which to suck their bloodmeal, why not create a genetically modified mosquito that would produce the candidate vaccine protein in its saliva, so that when it inserts its proboscis into the blood capillary, the host gets a tiny injection of the protein at the same time. While I do expect that not a single mosquito bite would produce immunity, of course, the many thousands that one receives over time, might do the job, and would maintain it over time, as "booster shots" would be received daily. Since this vaccine seems to be efficacious against all the strains it has been tried against, it would suggest that the parasite's docking protein is highly conserved in evolution, making the evolution of resistance much less likely.

If the same genetic sequence were also used to invoke immunity to Plasmodium by the mosquito itself, it would give the mosquitos an evolutionary advantage in the environment, in that there is also a cost to the mosquito as well in carrying the parasite. This would ensure that the genetic modification would become dominant in the mosquito population over time. It would also provide a double-pronged attack on the parasite - both at the mosquito and human blood stages of the parasite's life cycle would be suppressed.

While I recognize that there are surely some formidable barriers in the way of creating such a system and deploying it in the field, my thought is that it might have enough promise to be worth looking into.

Warmest regards from (so far) malaria-free Cartago, Costa Rica,

Trudy writes:

Listening to you in Podcast #6 on tapeworms. You are making me laugh. I live in Florida. Not everyone is retired in Florida. Not even people who live in South Florida are all retired.
FYI Whole Foods does list the country of origin of the animal proteins sold in their stores.
With my background in Public Health epidemiology and communicable disease clinic (STD clinician...TB outreach), I have never seen a tapeworm in a specimen since moving to Florida. I had seen on in the teaching hospital I worked at in Grand Rapids, Michigan in a specimen from an immigrant. Now I said not everyone in Florida is retired and they are not...but I am retired (early).

Cattle ranches are not just in the panhandle either...many of these ranches are all over the state. Florida is a big state, we have a lot of open land used for all types of agricultural purposes. While there are beef cattle grown in Florida, many more farms/ranches are devoted to dairy production.

I am a nurse, an artist and a Florida Master, microbiology and infectious diseases continue to be of tremendous interest to me.

Charlotte writes:

In TWIP 33 you asked which protozoa should be discusesed in future episodes. If you discuss Acanthamoeba as a "Trojan Horse" you can correct errors made on two episodes of TWIM regarding Legionella as endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba.

I think listeners would find comparisons of Acanthamoeba, Neglaria and Hartmonella (in terms of pathogenesis and as bacterial reservoirs) interesting.

Thank you for the podcasts, without which I would never sleep.


P.S. The "Trojan Horse" term was coined by Barker & Brown, but everybody uses it now.

TWiP 33 Letters

Howie writes:


Great podcast!!!

A while ago, Dick made a comment along the lines that Sir Ronald Ross was a dim bulb. Ross did much more than "just" discover that bird malaria is transmitted by mosquitos. He was a closet mathematicians and published about 20 papers and books on pure mathematics (see

He was also a superb infectious disease transmission modeler.

Germ theory was developed in the 1850s. Before then, people believed that diseases such as cholera were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of bad air. About 60 years latter, Ronald Ross, a public health physician, developed two ODE (ordinary differential equation) transmission models for malaria [Ross, 1910] that made the following predictions:

Germ theory was developed in the 1850s. Before then, people believed that diseases such as cholera were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of bad air. About 60 years latter, Ronald Ross, a public health physician, developed two ODE (ordinary differential equation) transmission models for malaria [Ross, 1910] that made the following predictions:

1: One does not need to kill all the mosquitos in an area to prevent malaria epidemics. There is a threshold value of vector capacity,  below which the disease quickly dies out in humans. This conclusion was at first rejected by the experts, but proved correct by field trials in Malaysia where malaria transmission essentially ceased after draining the mosquito larval habitats.

2: Malaria can not be eradicated by treating humans alone. Even if the number of infected humans is reduced by 99%, if the mosquito population remains unchanged, then the disease prevalence will rebound to its former value.

3: The endemic level of infections is lower for longer lasting infections, e.g., it is lower for P. vivax than for P. faciparum infections.

Of course, mathematical models can not prove anything, but they generated novel hypotheses which were found to be correct and saved countless lives.

Ross was also the first to present a mechanistic model of the transmission of a generic infectious disease.

Not bad for a dim bulb!

Please, never stop TWIVing.


Professor of Mathematics

Georgia Institute of Technology

Spencer writes:

Dear TWIP,

I really enjoyed your analysis of the Malaria Vaccine article from the New England Journal of Medicine.    You guys had an interesting discussion about the different phases of clinical trials and I thought it was incumbent upon me to clarify these phases.  As a clinical investigator, I oversee several Phase 1 clinical trials.  A Phase 1 trial is a dose escalation trial:  It is simply carried out to assess safety at various potential clinical doses of a compound.  Obviously, before a compound makes it to such a trial, there has been some demonstration of effectiveness in animal models, or some reasonable suspicion that the compound will be a useful treatment for the disease.  Phase 1 studies are small - typically 20-80 people and it is in this phase that side effects can first be seen.  A Phase 2 trial targets the maximum tolerated safe dose in a specific population that either has the disease or is at risk for the disease.    There are usually 100-300 people in a Phase 2 tri al.  In addition to looking at continued safety at the studied dose, the compound in question is studied for its effectiveness in treating the condition or disease in this phase.  In Phase 3, the compound is compared to standard of care treatment, often in a head-to-head blinded fashion.  In some cases, there is no defined standard of care treatment.  Alternatively, in some cases, such as you discussed about HIV, it would be unethical to withhold conventional treatment while evaluating the new compound.  This makes Phase 3 trials very difficult to complete.  Also, Phase 3 trials usually require thousands of participants and take a long time.  Phase 4 trials are post-marketing trials.  The compound has already been approved for sale and prescription by the Food and Drug Administration.  Many of the side effects and sometimes disasters associated with some medications are not apparent until the drug is taken by 10s of thousands of people after it is already released.  I hope this is helpful to listeners and I just want to remind you guys that there are still some interesting parasitic lifecycles and histories to discuss for which we are still waiting.  Keep up the great work.

Jim writes:

I was jolted to hear the casual mention in TWIP 28 by Dr Gwadz of chiggers and scrub typhus.  I thought chiggers were one of the local pests I could ignore other than itching during routine encounters with them each summer.  This summer at the worst point I had over 50 on two legs despite deet all over my shoes, socks and lower pant legs.  One or perhaps two adjacent bites produced a large blister in contrast with the usual small, red, itchy nodules.  No other symptoms, but now I'll be alert associated symptoms.  During scrub typhus research with Google I saw instructions for soldiers about tucking trousers into the tops of their boots as a protective measure.  I assume this is the reason for "blousing boots" done by the Army, but don't recall ever hearing that was the reason.

Another great TWIP, by the way.  A small group discussion seems to produce the most interesting results.

Thanks again.


Smithfield, VA

Michael writes:

I love TWiP!

I am starting my parasitology class (for a Medical Lab program) this fall. I am also excited to be able to learn and understand many more of the details now that I have the basics down because of TWiP.

I also have enjoyed being able to use all of the TWi_ podcasts to form questions for my friend in Physician Assistant school who then often asks her classmates the same questions (I bring up topics you say are not often taught in medical schools and the unusual cases, and put them into a type of case study, adding the most vague hints as she and they get stumped). Due to your podcasts I will be able to better grasp everything I learn and be able to help impart critical thinking skills to other health care professionals.

Also, Do I remember hearing that a 6th ed may be coming out of the Parasitic Diseases book? I would love to add that to my studies! If so, any idea when? Did you say it may be avaliable on ibooks? I also encourage you to consider Kindle, for it is easier to read the text on a Kindle, and anyone with a computer, ipad, iphone, android, ect. Can get the free Kindle app and read it and view any color pictures.

I would still like a higher frequency, but so long as you just don't stop, I will be happy with whatever you can do!

Anything associated with Infectious Diseases and how humans interact with and are affected by them is my passion!

Thank you for giving me chopped and dried wood to put onto the fire!


Jim writes: (incomparable TWiP 30)

Just incomparable!  Pure knowledge; so much expertise in one place; another podcast in my Best Podcasts folder.  All the TWIV, TWIP and TWIM podcasts are great, but they are readily accessed, too, so far, and I'm capturing a collection of less easily retrieved audio files for times when I can pass on the collection to interested folks which has already occurred twice.  A couple TWIP's are there to capture attention and alert listeners to where similar files are available.  I'm sure your backup plan is excellent, Vince, but I'll happily store copies of everything, if you need another remote site.


Smithfield, VA

Alan writes:

What creature/parasite/worm can I catch from eating a cockroach snack late at night?

I can't decide which entertainment personality I like more, Vince or Des Pom. Its not just the subject its you guys that I listen to.

Have fun,


P.S. I am with Dixon on the orchids.

Scott writes:

Hi guys!

This article popped up on a facebook feed I subscribe to; probably you already are familiar with the material, but just in case I thought I would pass it along. I have an interest, but no expertise, in tropical medicine, and would like to hear your opinions.

Ricardo writes:

Alex writes:

Hello Doctor Racaniello and Despommier,

Curious if you might have some incites on a particular malaria life cycle. I've been reading on Plasmodium vivax.  We know that Plasmodium vivax can relapse via the hidden agents stored in the liver, termed 'hypnozoites'. But time and time again through multiple sources it's stated that vivax malaria relapses much more quickly in patients in tropical regions over non-tropical regions, on the magnitude of several months.  For the life of me I cannot explain this, the parasite would seemingly detect the same body temperature and conditions within the host regardless of where they are living. I have two theories here; Perhaps the hosts are indeed different, with varied levels of nutrition and other factors causing the hypnozoites to convert earlier in tropical cases and later in better nourished non-tropical cases. Or, on the other hand, the cases of "relapses" could be muddled by actual cases of re-infection. Since you are more likely to get an infection in a tropical region the relapse rates seem lower in non-tropical regions. Any thoughts?

In TWIP#31, Doctor Despommier mentioned that a man by the name of 'Macgregor' conducted a statistical analysis to determine the number of cases needed to maintain malaria infection within the population?  I was unable to find this paper, and curious if you might be able to link in within the show-notes next time.  I'm extremely interested to see these figures. It seems to me that we might be on the cusp of a medical paradigm, with a vaccine that's 50% effective it may be the extra push with the combination of mechanical preventative strategies (bed nets, ect.) needed to eradicate the disease.  Is there such a thing as 'vector-based herd immunity'?  Conventionally, 85% of individuals within a population must be immune to maintain herd immunity within the entire population.  I know this is complicated by the fact that it must be essentially eradicated within two populations (humans and mosquitoes), and therefore likely to result in a much higher threshold of immunity.

Keep up the great work!

Todd writes:

I'm reading this article and take a small issue with item #5 :

The first part of this paragraph makes perfect sense:

If it's parasites or other risks associated with sushi that worry you more than mercury, Andy Bellatti suggests you put your mind at ease. "Fish served in sushi restaurants has been previously flash frozen, which kills parasites as effectively as cooking," he explains.

Particularly confusing to me though, and if memory serves, contrary to a comment that Dick made about farmed fish (though I think it was in reference to a sheep borne parasite (liver fluke maybe?)) is the second part of the paragraph:

[Andy] also points to Steven Shaw's book Asian Dining Rules: Essential Eating Strategies for Eating Out at Japanese, Chinese, Southeast Asian, Korean, and Indian Restaurants, which explains that most fish used for sushi in restaurants around the world are farmed to avoid the problems with parasites in wild fish. "Fish like tuna are not particularly susceptible to parasites because they dwell in very deep and cold waters. Sushi restaurants typically use farmed salmon to avoid the parasite problems wild salmon have," he explains. The fish that are at times likely to have parasites, like cod or other whitefish, aren't used for sushi anyway and are generally served fully cooked.

I suspect it is more about which parasite they're referring to than the absolute of "all parasites."  Can you clear up my confusion?

Keep up the great work guys!  TWIP and TWIV are both part of my commute routine.  It makes me wish my drive was longer...well...maybe not...but your penchant for educating the masses is earning you karma points daily!


P.S. Ronald Jenkees *ROCKS*!  You should hear his unreleased music, which he has linked from his website.

Luca writes:

Dear Vincent and Dick,

Once again I write to you after listening to TWIP episode 32, where Vincent went off on a tangent to discover the meaning of acta in the various scientific journals.

Here I am to shine some light upon it. As an Italian, I learned that word in primary school, when we were taught that every day, in Ancient Rome, all that had been discussed and decided in the Senate would be put up on a poster in the Forum, the public square, so that the people could know about it. This was called Acta Diurna (loosely, record of the day) - of course there's a wikipedia page for it: Here it is! It goes into much more detail than I ever would be able to. I probably got it wrong in some details, too. Primary school was long time ago.

Once again thanks for your constant, excellent work in education and public outreach, I have now expanded my weekly podcast schedule to include TwiM, but I have to admit that TWiP is still my favourite.

All the best


PS: here's an added bonus - I knew the meaning of Despommiers, but was curious about Racaniello, so looked it up online - there's no meaning as far as I can tell, although to me it sounds like some kind of edible root in Italian. However, I found the Racaniello coat of arm, in the corresponding wikipedia page - - did you know about it? And you have a (rather mean) family motto, too: Dominus exquisitus artis saeviter quis revocas malum memet (I possess a refined art, that to hurt cruelly whoever does me evil). Cheery-o!

TWiP 32 Letters

Raihan writes:

Hi Guys,

I saw this video during the course of listening to TWiP. Is there any parasitic truth behind this phenomenon?

Amazing Podcast. You guys are revolutionizing education.


from @Sophie on Twitter:

Please do a TWiP on Baylisascaris procyonis

Jim writes:

TWIP 26 on the schistosomes was equally interesting. I did some serious thinking about a swimming episode done in Cam Rahn Bay, Vietnam in 1971, but never had any problems, yet. I heard that shistosomes either stopped or prevented invasion of Quemoy and Matsu Islands by the Chinese by wading across an isthmus probably in the early 1900's. Neat analogy with Schwarzenegger.

Smithfield, VA

Suzanne writes:

I think most wild salmon are caught at sea. Would any parasites they picked up as youth in rivers stick with them then?

I've been told that from an economic/environmental point of view Alaska does a very good job fishing (and not overfishing) for wild salmon. That's one reason I buy Alaskan wild salmon. I don't think I'll stop, but most of what I buy is canned and cooked. Or smoked. I do like salmon sushi occasionally, though... hmmmmmm.

Chad writes:

I came across an organism named Naegleria fowleri while I was going off on tangents from a wikipedia search.
This looks like an interesting organism for your podcast, (assuming it is considered a parasite.)

Thank you,

Jim writes:

Prof Despommier:

In your excellent TWIV 22 about hookworms you noted that after the Civil War lethargy was a major problem in the South due to hookworm infection. My local newspaper today contained a long article about difficulties US troops have in training and working with Afghan troops, stating in part that "...American forces often characterized their Afghan counterparts as drug abusers and thieves who were also incompetent, corrupt and lazy with 'repulsive hygiene.'" Do you know of parasites in that part of the world which could lead to a person being seen as incompetent and lazy, especially if they have poor hygiene, or if studies have been made to identify prominent parasites in Afghanistan or that region? No other details about these characteristics were offered in the article, so we don't know, for example, if the repulsive hygiene description is by necessity, due to cultural differences, or laziness.


Smithfield, VA

Alberto writes:

Dear Vince and Dickson

Following the release of TWiP #27 (Trematodes) I attended grand rounds at our hospital where an interesting case was presented that was coincidentally relevant to this recent episode.

A middle aged man presented at our hospital with severe liver dysfunction and was eventually found to have a Fasciola hepatica infection (a single egg was seen in a stool sample). The CT and NMR scans clearly showed tracks of necrotic tissue in the liver but the most impressive graphic was a video of the gall bladder ultrasound where multiple flukes could be seen moving in and out of the field of view of the scanner.

The presenting infectious disease registrar believes the source of infection was fresh watercress consumed with a traditional Lebanese dish of raw beef (Kebbeh nayyeh). The watercress was obtained from the patient's friend in Forster on the Northen New South Wales coast, in sheep country.

Apparently there have been other cases of F. hepatica infection including one in Melbourne associated with cultivated watercress.

I am still catching-up on old episodes of both TWip and TWiV. I look forward to hearing more about molecular hydrogen generation by parasites. Is anybody looking at cloning the enzymes involved in this pathway for commercial exploitation.

Keep up the amazing effort guys.
Molecular Haematology Lab, Institute of Haematology
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital

Ryan writes:

Just so you know...

I could listen to Bob tell stories all day long! Great episode, guys!

Ryan Rogers
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department
Possum Kingdom Hatchery

Jim writes:

Professor Despommier,

I realize both you and Dr Racaniello are concerned about public health issues, but this seemed at first glance to be of greater interest to a parasitologist than a virologist. However, please don't prevent Vince from commenting. So, may I get your comments about this Thirstaid Bag from Britain ( Despite its small size it looks like another possible item for my emergency equipment box for use in a local disaster, or for travel anywhere water quality is questionable. It's compact, tough and lightweight and has a filter shelf life of 5 years. Of course some iodine pills or small bottle of clorox would be much cheaper, so is it a cost effective item? I wonder, also, how temperature affects the filter and also how a user in the field could test the water it produces to verify filter effectiveness. For example it could be on the shelf for 4.5 years and have just produced some 200 or 300 liters of water out of its 350 maximum. The manufacturer says the filters are stamped with a production date and once placed in use are effective for a year, or I presume, the 350 liters. Let's say the bag and a 3oz bottle of clorox are stored in a car glove box or car trunk in Florida for 2 years and then in Massachusetts for 2 years, before a need for them occurs. Do you think both will be as effective as when produced?


Smithfield, VA

James writes:

Dear Vincent and Dickson,

I have finally caught up with all the TWIP podcasts! In October, I will start a position as an assistant professor in host-pathogen interactions at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Calgary. My background is in biochemistry and bioinformatics. I completed a PhD at the University of Edinburgh on genomics of parasitic nematodes and a postdoc in Toxoplasma gondii at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto. In my new position, I hope to return to nematodes - if the funders will permit me!

Although my work is focused on genomics, I readily see the importance of classical parasitology, e.g. taxonomy and systematics, cell biology and ecology. In recent podcasts, Dickson has referred to the end of the golden age of parasitology and the closure of parasitology departments. Rest assured that there are still groups of Young Turks telling anyone who will listen and shouting at those who won't about the importance of all aspects of parasitology, not just DNA-sequencing.

I want to thank you both for your efforts in TWIP - I continue to learn a lot, especially the history and social aspects. With respect to the basic biology, I am continually blown away by the invasion and survival mechanisms of these parasitic critters. Trying to understand them better is what gets me out of bed in the morning, that and a cup of tea!

Listening to Robert Gwadz was inspirational and I look forward to hearing from other legends in the field.

best wishes


Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Calgary

TWiP 31 Letters

Chandler writes:

Hi Dr.'s Racaniello and Despommier,

After listening to your podcast on Onchocerca volvulus I decided to contact you in hopes of enlisting your expertise. I am a PhD student of biology at Northern Arizona University and while my research is in novel antimicrobial gene discovery using halophilic Archaea I am also currently working with Onchocerca lupi. There has recently been an increase in incidence of Onchocerca lupi infections in dogs in the Southwestern United States. My dog, at 2 years of age, began showing symptoms of an eye infection that persisted after several different rounds of antibiotics. After seeking out an ophthalmologist, exploratory surgery was performed and a single nematode found. Almost a year and four surgeries later, his infection is still present. The worms have been coming to the outside surface of his eyes where I see them and pull them out as well as forming several nodules in his eyes. He is given monthly injections of ivermectin and takes doxycycline daily (200mg) in hopes of killing the Wolbachia and rendering the parasites sterile. Between only two vets I have seen in the Phoenix area they have seen nine cases of Onchocerca lupi recently. I am receiving nodules removed from the eyes of my dog as well as parasite samples from California and Utah cases. I am currently sequencing the partial mitochondrial genes from all samples in hopes of comparing the parasites in the U.S. to others published from Central Europe where Onchocerca lupi is endemic. I wish to sequence the entire biome of Onchocerca lupi in hopes of discovering highly conserved unique DNA as a potential treatment target as well as other possible endosymbionts as potential targets. I also would just like to see this information available to others who specialize in parasites. Funding, however, seems very difficult to secure for this parasite.

I have a couple of questions I hope you can answer and if not perhaps you can point me in the direction of someone who can. I have not found any literature on O. lupi that shows these subcutaneous nodules throughout a canines body. The samples I have received have all been found in nodules on the eyes. However, I am finding several 'bumps' on my dog's body and am wondering if these might be nodules or if they are a calcium build up from the high, long-term dose of oral prednisone. Secondly, after recently dissecting a newly formed eye nodule, I found several worms that I believe are calcified ( I have not yet tested to be certain) and several worms that I am not sure if were alive or dead or perhaps unhealthy. Are there ways of testing whether these are healthy/living parasites? Will all dead parasites become calcified? Do you have any ideas why several of the worms have migrated to the outside surface of his eyes?

I feel I had a million questions to ask you and now can only remember these. I did want to point out that recently in areas where this parasite is endemic (Europe) a couple of papers have been published on Onchocerca lupi being zoonotic. These findings are based on molecular analysis. This seems like reason for concern in the United States where it looks like it is also soon to be endemic.

I have included a picture from one of my dog's surgeries of what we are calling a drainage tract. It seems too large to be created for the adult worms to migrate through, could it be for the microfilaria? Have you seen anything like this before? The vets and I are at a loss for what it is, but after having all surrounding tissue removed several months later another one formed. Thank you for taking the time to read my ridiculously long email and any information you can give me is greatly appreciated.


Tommy writes:

Hi Vincent and Dick,

Loving the podcast, and I'm glad that you guys finally got around to the wonderfully peculiar and complex trematodes! Having worked with various different species of trematodes for the last few years, I am
glad to finally hear them make an appearance on TWiP. When you were discussing schistosome cercariae penetrating their host, I was reminded of some videos I filmed over a year ago which can be found here:

There, you will find the video of some cercariae of a fluke call Curtuteria australis (which I wrote a post about for the Parasite of the Day blog:
penetrating the foot of its second intermediate host, a bivalve called Austrovenus stutchburyi.

Back on the subject of the schistosomes, some recent research indicate that schistosomes can get "divorced":

Beltran, S., Boissier, J. (2010) Male-biased sex ratio: why and what consequences for the genus Schistosoma? Trends in Parasitology 26: 63-69.

Beltran, S., Cézilly, F., Boissier, J. (2008) Genetic dissimilarity between mates, but not male heterozygosity, influences divorce in schistosomes. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3328.

Beltran, S., Cézilly, F., Boissier, J. (2009) Adult sex ratio affects divorce rate in the monogamous endoparasite Schistosoma mansoni. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63: 1363-1368.

Steinauer, M.L. (2010) The sex lives of parasites: investigating the mating system and mechanisms of sexual selection of the human pathogen Schistosoma mansoni. International Journal for Parasitology 39: 1157-1163. (interesting supplementary video for this paper)

Also on the subject of trematodes in general, it is true that the majority of them have a snail first intermediate host, but there is a handful of families (e.g: gymnophallid, fellodistomatid, bucephalid, etc) which have bivalve first intermediate host. Finally there are a few very odd species which use polychaetes of all things as first
intermediate hosts (e.g: Cardicola forsteri), however such examples are very rare. So generally speaking all digenean/trematodes have *mollusc* first intermediate hosts, and the majority of them have snail first intermediate hosts.

Keep up the good work, the podcast is always informative and I look forward to more fluke talk!


Kenton writes:

Are there hieroglyphics indicating schistosomiasis was a recognized disease in ancient Egypt?

Thank you. I enjoy listening to your podcasts on TWiP.


TWiP 30 Letters

Jim writes:

How about using compost that includes road kill? I heard a billion pounds of animal byproducts go to landfills rather than into animal feed to prevent spread of mad cow disease. Compost that, too?

Virginia may compost roadkill

Boosters say it could save money and help the environment

By Cory Nealon, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

April 21 2011, 10:42 PM EDT

The Virginia Department of Transportation is considering composting roadkill, a move boosters say will save money and improve the environment.

The complete article can be viewed at:,0,6568729.story

Visit at

Peter writes:

Cutaneous leishmaniasis

Whilst perusing NEJM

Open access.

hookworm, cutaneous larva migrans

chronic schistosomiasis

Colleen writes:


My questions is: can a traveler to a South American country acquire a bacterial infection that lies dormant after an initial presentation of high fever, headache and GI disturbance, with recurrence of bowel issues months later? Are there bacteria that can lie dormant for months and have recurrence of acute symptoms?



Scott writes:

I can't be the first one to think of "Another TWIP is hosted", can I? Keep up the good work.


Ben writes: (subject: an odd thing about texas)

Dear sirs:

Recently there has been an explosion of "stumbling poultry disease" in my neighborhood in south Texas, it abounded after all the nearby gineaus (however its spelled) died of it and stopped eating all the ticks.

This makes me think it is Babeecia (I hope I spelled it right) but one of neighbors thinks it might be a worm. Would this classify as a parasite? Have you ever heard of anything like this before?



Beware the man with a gun for he knows how to use it


Pps: you don't have to read this on the podcast, but I don't mind being read

Benjamin writes:

Hello again sirs:

I am the one who wrote you about stumbling poultry disease.

Two things: on T gondii, Vince asked Dr Despommier a how question about toxo, to which Dr Despommier said something to the effect of: "Vince, I believe in creationism" I resemble that remark, and would politely ask you to refrain from doing so again, at least as a joke.

Second, on TWiP 19 Dr Despommier mentioned that some kids have pica. It's pronounced PEE-kah not PI-kah. Pika is a small rodent that lives in south America.

Benjamin writes:

Hello again sirs:

I just was listening to TWiP 15, so I no don't feel guilty for sending you so many emails.
Two more things: on the end of TWiP 18, Vince randomly says "your narration is impeccable" have you fixed this? maybe it was just an editing glitch, it just disturbs me late at night when I have trouble sleeping.
Number two: what happened to the just released TWiM? Was it removed? My collection is mismatched, so by logic, it was removed at the turn of the year.

Greetings from south Texas, the home of the golden-cheeked warbler

Ps: Dick's volume keeps me on my toes trying to hear/keep from hurting my ears, something to look into.

Ivan writes:

Hello Professors Vincent and Dickson,

I am writing from Cozumel the island on the Caribbean and I found your podcast of Strongyloides stercolaris what I think is great. I was looking for data and pictures of different parasites and I would like to know if you can help me identificating the species of this parasite that I start seeing very often in my practice I think is an Ancylostoma caninum but I am not sure. I would appreciate your help.

I attached the files with the pictures, excuse me for the quality of the images but the camera in the microscope does not aloud me to take better pictures

Thank you in advance.

MVZ Cert. Iván

[see the TWiP 30 show notes for the images]

Liam writes:

Dear Vincent and Dick,

Thank you both for reigniting my interest in these fascinating organisms. I am a medical student from Western Australia with a particular interest in infectious diseases although our clinical teaching seems mostly oriented around bacteria, viruses and the occasional fungus. I have only recently discovered these podcasts but have found them immensely educational and entertaining. If I might offer a suggestion for a future episode you seem to have avoided the free-living neurotropic amoebae such as Naegleria, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia in your episodes about protozoa. While they might be considered opportunists rather than parasites, Naegleria in particular causes one of the deadliest eukaryotic infections and I would be very interested if you could offer some further insights.



TWiP 29 Letters

Dylan writes:

Dear Professors Racaniello and Depommier,

I hope this email finds you both in good health. I am a second year medical student from Ireland studying at the University of Cambridge, UK and I have been following the TWiP series with considerable interest. Please allow me to compliment the marvellous work you both are doing for science communication, which I am certain will help inspire both researchers and clinicians alike as well as the general public to learn more about infectious diseases. If I may, I would like to request that an episode be devoted to the helminth, Schistosoma mansoni.

Wishing you the best of luck with all the podcasts,

Yours faithfully,


Clint writes:

Love your show.

Have you seen this

The news clip covers a Chemotherapy Drug that Also Kills the Parasite That Causes Malaria.

It may be a malaria breakthrough could you give us your thoughts.

Thanks Again for a great program.


Ryan writes:

Hey Guys,

Thought I'd follow up with you on my email you read on #24.

You asked which university I attended and who taught parasitology there. I attended a smaller to medium size school in Texas called Tarleton State University, where I studied Limnology. My parasitology professor's name was Dr. Russell Pfau. Most of his work is with genetics and currently based around the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispids).

I also thought I would tell you guys how I have put my parasitology classes to use, as it might interest Dickson.

After I graduated with my B.S. I started working at a state run fish hatchery, where we produce game fish and do a fair bit of aquaculture research. We produce striped bass, smallmouth bass, channel catfish, and rainbow trout that are stocked in public water bodies around the state for angling enjoyment. We do regular sampling of our fish for various parasites and bacterial infections, so I've kept my microbiology skills fresh over the last few years.

Our arch-nemesis, however, is a single cell algae: Prymnesium parvum (golden algae).

It is a common algae found in estuaries around the world, but wreaks havoc when introduced to inland waters. P. parvum was first identified in Texas in the mid-eighties, and has gone on to destroy fish populations in several of our drainage basins throughout the state. Since then, it has reared its head in many different states in the U.S. Much of our resources (and most of my time) are spent dealing with golden algae at our facility and providing assistance to private land owners who have experienced blooms on their property.While we have good controls for dealing with it on a small scale, there is currently no solution for treating on a large reservoir scale.

Here is a link to more info on our website if anyone is interested:

Thanks again, for the great podcast. Since finding TWiP, I've also added your other podcast to my weekly downloads. They're all great.

(semi-professional phycologist)

John writes:

This show has stimulated an interest in the subject in me, an unlikely candidate.

Thank you

Coincidentally my dog is currntly being treated for heart wrom.

If you ever need an alternative name for the show I have;

1) Hold my hand, I'm a stranger in parasitism

2) Parisitism lost - paristism found.

3) Another shitty day in parisitism.

I hereby assign all rights.

Keep up the good work.


Alberto writes:

Dear Vincent & Dickson

Thanks for your wonderful podcasts. I have recently subscribed to both TWiP and TWiV and am slowly working my way back through the back catalogue.

I am a diagnostic molecular biologist working in the haematology department of a major teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Our lab's main tasks are PCR detection of various mutations and gene rearrangements found in leukaemias. This year marks the 20th anniversary of the first official diagnostic PCR report issued by our lab, so we have been involved in the field from the early days

I was particularly interested in TWiP #23 re. Strongyloides stercoralis since it is relevant to my work in molecular diagnostic haematology. One of the diseases that our lab works with is chronic eosinophilic leukaemia (CEL), particularly the myeloid subtype that is characterised by the presence of PDGFRA and PDGFRB gene rearrangements; this subtype is particularly sensitive to kinase inhibitors such as imatinib. Curiously, these gene rearrangements are almost exclusively found in males and they do not involve the sex chromosomes.

(Note for your listeners: Eosinophils are white blood cells that form part of the innate immune system. They are full of toxic protein granules that are released to kill invading organisms. However, if these granules are released in the host's tissues in large quantities they can cause significant systemic toxicity. Commonly affected tissues in hypereosinophilia [eosinophil blood counts above 1.5x10^9 /litre] include the skin, heart, lungs & gastrointestinal tract. )

Therefore, it is very important that patients with eosinophilia are correctly diagnosed so that the clinician can determine if they are eligible to receive this very effective targeted therapy. CEL is very rare compared to reactive eosinophilias, including those caused by parasitic infections. Other idiopathic eosinophilias are treated with corticosteroids which suppress immunity.

In my CEL powerpoint that I have presented to clinical haematologists I have a couple of slides stressing the importance of screening patients by Strongyloides serology prior to commencing corticosteroid or kinase inhibitor treatment for eosinophilia. It was not until I heard TWiP#23 that I really understood how serious strongyloidiasis is and why it is so important to avoid it.

Having no background in parasitology and very little in immunology beyond undergraduate biology, I appreciate that Dickson instructs us in the correct pronunciation of the names of the organisms and diseases that you discuss.

I hope you guys continue to keep up the good work and that you mentor a new generation of podcasters who will produce other interesting podcasts. I only wish there was a podcast of equivalent content and production quality in molecular haematology. Thanks again and I look forward to hearing more from you both.




Molecular Haematology Lab, Institute of Haematology

Royal Prince Alfred Hospital


TWiP 28 Letters

Chris writes:

Dear Dick and Vincent,

I am a doctor of pharmacy and I have listened to all of your podcasts and have read many of your book suggestions (TWIV and TWIP). I thoroughly enjoy them and hang on every word of Dick's stories. I would like to say a few things. First may I point out the obvious flaw with your name; This WEEK in Parasitology, and yet we don't have it weekly. I feel that we need more shows just to catch up with all of Dick's anecdotes. You also mentioned the island of Ceylon changing to Madagascar but in fact it is now Sri Lanka. The USGS was formed in 1879 as a bill signed by president Rutherford Hayes and I can't seem to find anything in it's history that relates to the Rockefeller Foundation. As best as I can tell Thiabendazole is not available in the US or Canada and Mebendazole oral is the current treatment for hookworm. I hope this helps. Keep them coming.


P.S. Why not have a TWIP/TWIV app for your iphone? All of the contacts, emails, shownotes and shows and access to literature can be in one place. Just a thought.

Lars writes:

Hello Vincent Racaniello and Dick Despommier,

this is my second mail to the TWIV/TWIP team. Thanks for some more background information last time about the Plasmodium falciparum/Gorilla story.

By now I have listened to all TWIP podcasts more than once and have been able to listen to nearly all the TWIV podcasts. I can understand that with your schedule does not allow to have a TWIP and TWIV podcast every week and I think in this field it is better to have less podcasts but the ones that are there go really into the subject. I think with a weekly but much shorter version a lot of the public learning benefits are reduced. So it would be great to have these long TWIP and TWIV podcasts in future as well.

I am sure you have heard about the The Carter Center and its fight against Guinea worm. It would be great to have a podcast about the Guinea worm topic since its said that this will be the second disease (the first parasitic disease) to be eradicated. And the first disease eradicated without the use of a vaccine.

Greetings from Germany


Jim writes:


What a terrific cohesive and comprehensive approach to hookworms. Such a delicate handling of the political and social issues, too. You may receive some response from listeners upset about the civil war and slavery and southern lethargy, but hopefully it will be balanced by positive reactions.

I just finished an article about a visit to Biloxi, Mississippi, in an 1865 edition of Harpers Weekly Magazine that talked about the lethargy that infects not only locals but visitors, too, referring more to the weather, I suppose, than parasites. Even in the 60's while living in California folks would refer to the much slower pace of life and speach in the South that supposedly derived from culture and weather. Interesting idea that parasite-derived group actiivity or mores might lead to social changes that perpetuate it.

Thanks for a terrific netcast. Looking forward to the rest of the story.

Smithfield, VA

David writes:

Love the show....

This delightful book has a section that is germane to your show and you might want to quote a few lines and discuss.

It details the occupation of Tongue examiner of pigs who would look for signs of parasite infection and sometimes cover it up.

Also....I have been a victim of Giardia three times as I was outdoor type of fellow who had a dog I traveled with extensively.

I got the classic symptoms each time: Painful abdomen often after eating, foul smelling stools that persisted, changes in stools consistency and color and it lasts until some form of treatment
Round one cured by Flagyl aka Metronidazole

Round two cured by Wheat Germ and I mean cured followed by Flagyl

Round three cured by Wheat Germ alone.

some research is here

here is a health page recommendation

scroll down for wheat germ



Jeannine writes:


I was a fellow graduate student at Notre Dame, graduating in 1970. I remember your discussions on parasites in the break room with pleasure. Your name keeps popping up everywhere, most recently on the TWIV netcast I receive, I suppose, as a member of the ASV. So I just wanted to say 'hello'.

Following a post-doc at the University of Chicago I had the good fortune to be hired as a grants manager by the Office of Naval Research in Chicago, where I lived at the time. I was hired at the recommendation of Morris Pollard, a friend of my soon-to-be boss. I went on to be transferred in 1982 to ONR Headquarters in Arlington, VA, where I still reside. I retired, sort of, in 2002. My 30 years in government work proved to be a delightful continuation of graduate school, as I site-visited hundreds of scientists most eager to discuss their research in areas ranging from shark behavior to fluid resuscitation of hemorrhage. I probably attended at least 200 conferences during my career as well. As a parting shot, so to speak, I fielded a battlefield hemorrage treatment used by the Marines in Iraq. During most of my government career I conducted part-time research in virology as a visiting professor at Loyola Med. School in Chicago, Uniformed Services University in Bethesda, University of Tennessee and Washington State University. My primary objective has been to understand how viruses make you sick--a field of minimal interest to virologists I must conclude following many hostile letters from journal editors. I have recently completed my work at WSU and plan to write a few more articles and then read books unrelated to virology! Three of my most recent articles are attached.

I am pleased that another student of Notre Dame has had a rewarding career.

Best wishes to you and your family,

Laura writes:

I am currently studying Zoology at university and starting a masters degree in Molecular parasitology and vector biology in september. I have recently seen a story on monsters inside me (its on the discovery channel) about a fireman who became infected with Ballamuthia an amoeba where there have only been a few cases in humans. Would you be able to tell us more about opportunistic amoeba?

TWiP 27 Letters

Jim writes:

Vince and Dickson,

You both have probably seen this already, but for TWIP and TWIM listeners fighting malaria with transgenic fungi is the first item in the 41 minute podcast for 25 Feb 2011, from . This sounds both fascinating as another means of dealing with animal and plant pathogens, and frightening from my understanding that fungi, at least as a human pathogen, are difficult to control. Could such fungi be transferred to humans and how can that be tested? Here's a hard copy source, too:

I think that podcast also talks about a new palm-sized NMR device! Man, it just keeps getting better and better...

On a totally different subject. Vince, you went through Weed, California some months back and I see you were just up in Washington state. As a kid I lived a few miles south of Weed, in the logging town of Mt Shasta (next to the mountain) as well as in a railroad town of Dunsmuir a few more miles south. You can also see Black Butte just north of the town of Mt Shasta along the interstate. Black Butte is a cinder cone about 2000 ft high with a path on the back side that's visible with Google Earth, that used to lead to a US Forest Service fire watch station that was continuously manned. I think it took us kids a couple hours to climb the path. If you get back that way in the summer, have the time and want the exercise, the climb up Black Butte would be a pleasant adventure. Mind the altitude, though. The starting point is about 4,000 ft.

For Dickson, a couple miles west of Mt Shasta up in the Cascades is a small mountain lake (almost a pond), maybe 20 acres in size with 2-foot-long rainbow trout that appeared to float in mid-air, the water was so clear. The lake only supported a few of these beauties and they were impossible to catch. The lake name, which you can locate with Google Earth, was either Porcupine or Toad Lake. Porcupine seems to be the one, but I don't see any logging roads to it as appear to exist for Toad Lake and the one with the fish could be reached by road, while you had to walk to the other. That was 50 years back, though.

There's a web cam for Mt Shasta, with several days worth of time lapse viewing that I look at. The same site provides temperature data. It was interesting as a kid to have a mountain in your back yard.

Smithfield, VA

Eric writes:

Dear Vincent and Dickson:

Thanks for reading my email. The "sync" trick I referred to was the synchronous mouse infection that Dickson describes at 15:20 into twip #5.

It's wonderful that Dickson shares this with the new researchers coming up. It's a bit like a magic trick - difficult at first to see how it's done, but much easier once you know the technique.

In rooting out computer bugs, if you can repeat the problem, you can always find its cause. The sync trick is like repeating the problem many times in parallel, so you only need to run the experiment one time. And if you have to destroy a cell to see what stage its at, you have many others still running at the same pace. Love it!



Jim writes:

This is for Dick, again, in the infomatics realm: just in case you've not kept up with the different presentations, .
I love these things.

Smithfield, VA

Sorry Dick, but I should have used the link rather than one that showed a couple of his TED presentations dealing with statistics.

Stephen writes:

Dear TWIP,

Isaac Asimov was a biochemist, not a physicist as mentioned in episode 23.

He did write many "Popular Science" books explaining physics and astronomy (I have 3 or 4 of those), so it is an easy mistake to make.

- Stephen

Judi writes:

Hello Drs R and D,

Thanks for the great podcast - I learn science, history, and a bit of politics from you and love the unexpected connections you make (Abe should have given a medal to the hookworm as the supreme undercover agent!)

I am a high school teacher and I try to teach my students to think about things - and one of the things I've been pushing is that virtually every decision or action has a potential positive and a potential negative - you weigh both sides to make your decision.

In that vein, i have to ask the other side. When you talk about parasites, you talk about them in relation to human disease, and , rightly so, the goal is to rid the world of them to protect people. My question - do they have no other function in the larger ecosystem? Can we rid the world of onchocerca - or hookworm or malaria for that matter - and have no effect on the larger ecosystem?

If these are truly a single food chain, rather than being part of a food web, I will use them in class as an example. Right now I tell kids that almost all organisms are part of a food web and so we need to look carefully before to bulldoze or plow or pave or overfish.

Thanks for keeping me learning and interested - and for the best professional development I have ever gotten! I strive to teach as well as the two of you...

San Diego, CA

Raphael writes:

I've been doing some transcribing in my free time on your TWiP's "Hookworm" episode for my blog site and it seems that Dr. Dick made an error on mentioning the term "hematuria" for the dark-brown colored stools found in patients with intestinal bleeding. "Hematuria" is meant for blood in the urine. What Dr. Dick was supposed to mean was "melena," and contrasting this to the word "hematochezia" for the bright-red stools (undigested, fresh blood).

If you're interested to note the error, it's around 39 mins and 55 secs of the recording time.

The Learning Blog

TWiP 26 Letters

Jim writes:

Prof Dickson,

Does the same concern that you discussed with suppressed immunity after a transplant apply to folks who undergo chemotherapy for cancer? (re strongyloides)

Smithfield, VA

Spencer writes:

Hi Vincent and Dick,

On your Strongyloides episode, you spoke about final eradication of organisms such as polio virus. It was Dick's contention that the virus could be "reconstructed" from synthesizing the DNA, whose sequence is known. Are there any instances that you are aware of where a a full virus or other living organism (yes I know, viruses may not be living) were constructed in this way such that they could go on to have a normal life cycle and replicate? In other words, is just the creation of the DNA sequence sufficient for recreation for a virus?

As alway, thanks for making my day when I see that email announcement of a new episode.

Spencer MD PhD

TWiP 25 Letters

Casey writes:


I would like to thank you for the excellent podcasts regarding parasites and viruses. Although I must say, I think TWiP is more enjoyable than TWiV. I graduated with a bachelor's degree in Microbiology and a bachelor's degree in Clinical Laboratory Science from the University of Iowa, ultimately becoming board certified in Medical Laboratory Science with the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). I am currently working as a Clinical Microbiologist at a 500 bed hospital that just recently got rid of the parasitology laboratory.

Unfortunately, I wish the United States put more emphasis on parasitology as it does in the other areas of medical microbiology. While I was a microbiology major, the Department of Microbiology never offered a course in parasitology. In addition, as a CLS major, we were only given a 3 day lecture on parasites, which was really just brushed aside. Your podcasts continue to increase my interest in parasites pushing me to buy many books on the subject to add to my already growing microbiology library. I must admit though, I have not bought the book by Dr. Despommier yet. I can easily relate to some of the patient cases as I was recently infected with two parasites (giardia and E. histolytica) while I was in small villages in Vietnam and Cambodia.

I was just admitted to the University of Texas Medical Branch as a PhD student in the Biomedical Sciences Program, with an emphasis in Experimental Pathology. During my interview, they found it interesting that I mentioned parasitology as an area of research interest.

I do not know if you have mentioned it in previous TWiV or TWiP podcasts, but I would like to inform you of the Infectious Wearables website, I have bought several infectious disease ties from this website, which are always a conversation starter at family and professional gatherings.

Thank you and keep up the excellent work,


Suzanne writes:

I'm learning so much about history today! :) Just before TWiP I was listening to a podcast about Scotland and Ireland and the Scotch/Irish
who'd moved to the American colonies a couple hundred years ago. I'd known that one of the most hated British regiments had burned churches in the South and that was partly why they lost the favor of the royalists there at the beginning of the Revolutionary War. I learned
today that they were burning Presbyterian churches because the Presbyterian ministers were wandering the land trying to gather support for the Revolution.

Not that that has anything to do with your podcast :) Other than I was also interested to learn the role of hookworm in the South after the
Civil War. The South was pretty screwed up economically to begin with. There really wasn't great wealth by that point, just a few people who
were very wealthy. At the end of the war the few landowners who'd had enough land to make money left. Even before the war there was a lot of unemployment because of slavery and slavery itself wasn't nearly as economical as the landowners tried to convince themselves. Except in
the few cases where someone had enough land to profit on a small margin. Kind of like farming today. It wasn't just the machines in the
north that made businesses more profitable. Even small northern farmers were more profitable because they could hire fewer freemen who
would actually be interested in doing the work without the payment of a foreman to beat it out of them. Thomas Jefferson even wrote about
the problems created by slavery long before the Civil War. Frederick Law Olmsted (yeah! the park designer!) has an interesting book (The
Cotton Kingdom) he wrote after traveling through the South just before the war. I expect hookworm was the final nail in the coffin. Very
interesting to find out!

Thanks for all your podcasts. They're all in my list of favorites!

I also meant to say it's been fun listening to further information about things I already know a lot about like hookworm, which my mom
always warned us about when I was a kid in the 70s in Texas, and pinworm, which I first learned about from friends with kids. Let me
tell, you, my friend were not happy to find out that most of our kids probably had pinworms! I did feel the need to tell them, though, since
it does happen occasionally that someone's kid gets enough of them to be an annoyance. The trick I learned from the email list of moms I
used to frequent was to peek at your kid's bottom while they sleep at night. Evidently you can see the adult females crawling out of the
kid's anus if you're... lucky?

Rich writes:

Dear Vincent and Dickson,

I can't resist. In TWiP 12 Dickson asserts that sea otters eat only abalone. This is incorrect. They eat all sorts of stuff:

I spent part of my youth watching these critters and they are not only fascinating and an important part of the ecology, but they are decidedly gourmets as well. The reason abalone loom so large on the human perception of sea otters is that the abalone fishermen blame the comeback from near extinction of the sea otters for the decline of the abalone industry. There is vigorous debate about whether the sea otters or the fishermen themselves are in fact responsible for the decline of the industry:

Keep up the good work.


Richard Condit
Department of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32610

Joe writes:

Dr. Racaniello and Despommier,

I very much enjoy listening to your TWiP podcast since I recently discovered it on iTunes last month. I particularly find the clinical presentation information and patient anecdotes informative. I will be starting medical school in the fall and will be sure to keep this information in mind as I go through my training.

There was mention in your broadcasts on Trichinella spiralis about the lack of current research being conducted on this parasite. I'm not sure if you are already aware of this article, but I thought you would be pleased to know that in the March 2011 issue of Nature Genetics the genome of Trichinella spiralis has been has been drafted (Matreva et al. Nature Genetics 43(3): 228-235.

Keep up the excellent work!

Thank You, Joe

Godfried writes:

Dear Hosts,

Did you ever considered yourself as addictive substances?
Some weeks ago a friend of mine suggested twip and twiv and now i find myself listening to your podcasts too frequently. There's a huge trove of episodes that i'm overdosing on (with horrible clinical effects as well as collapse of my social networks).

Currently i'm doing an MSc in infectious disease and combining this with your podcasts.
Thanks a lot for your effort, it is seriously helpful and fun.

A had a note/question to Dr. Despommier. In an earlier episode the genome size/gene content of Trichinella was discusses and it was mentioned that it has more genes than C. elegans. Last week i saw a paper in pre-print in Nature Genetics that discusses the genome of Trichinella (The draft genome of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis Nature Genetics 43, 228-235 (2011). It seems to have fewer genes than C. Elegans. I tried to work my way through the paper but it's dense and a lot of data (I failed). I wondered if Dr. Despommier, with his experience with this bug, could shine his light on this paper. I'm especially curious if the paper explains longstanding questions of Dr. Despommier regarding trichinella (that maybe the authors hadn't thought of). It must also be good news for him that "his" animal has been sequenced and that scientific research is continuing to be done on trichinella.

All the best,

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