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Hi Vince and Dick!
Has anyone volunteered to do transcripts for TWIP? I love this show, and I'd love to be able to contribute in some way. Forgive me if transcripts already exist and I'm just not finding them on the website. If no one is already working on this project, let me know and I would be happy to pitch in.
I am a nonscientist with a deep interest in biology, and the TWI shows are all definite favorites of mine. Thanks for making so much great content available.
P.S. - Have you ever played the boardgame Pandemic? As far as I know it's the only public health themed boardgame out there. It's challenging, and lots if fun. Call it a listener pick :)
Jessie in San Diego
First off, I want to say I recently discovered twiv and twip (and love them both). Thank you for such entertaining and informative podcasts.
1. Do you guys have any other shows?
2. I recently started going back to school, and started taking things I was actually interested in (namely biology). I had taken a genetics and a physiological psych course previously, but I had no idea how chemistry intensive basic bio courses were. My problem is, I'm absolutely useless at chemistry. While I seemed to score high grades on my exams, all of my labs were awful. What was supposed to be a crystal, turned out as brown sludge. What was supposed to change to bright orange, turned out dull yellow/green. And once my prof even had to rush my experiment to a hood because I had somehow made toxic fumes (even he was puzzled by that one). Is there any hope for me in any sort of public health or research related field, or should I just suck it up and go back to being a paper-pushing desk jockey?
Hello Dasher and Dancer Donder and Blitzen.. I mean Vince and Dixon!
I am a new listener and loving your podcast. I started with the renali worm and have been checking in each week and also going through your archives. Crazy fun! I have no idea what you are talking about half the time, but very impressed with the language and the fact that you both seem to know what you are talking about! I have a daughter in Microbiology and another one in Health Science and so i am hoping some knowledge will gradually seep in.. like osmosis, so that they will think I am smart.
I appreciate when you analyse and source the scientific words. Haha, and you were wondering if the mascatory secretory gel was something you buy at the drugstore! Funny! But anyway I always understand the parts about the weather and the kinds of weekends you have!
I have a query: Generally Is it correct that Dixon trusts that believes technology can solve our problems, but Vince on the other hand might feel we are moving further and further from our biological roots and this is what is causing a lot of our problems. For example D says mans job is to colonize space but V says he's too busy here on earth. D's solution to our food shortages is vertical farming a grand tech fix!
So, do you both also see this difference between yourselves? Or is that terribly simplistic? I would like to hear your thoughts about that.. if it doesn’t take you too far from your parasites.
Thanks so much for the show. veronica, from bc
Dear Dickson and Vincent,
I am a recently retired biomedical scientist, having worked my entire career in hospital labs, mainly in Microbiology, but in my latter years as a manager. I have been fascinated by parasitology since I was a student, however I do not have a formal qualification in the area, other than a few lectures as part of my training. It was therefore delighted to discover TWIP, and I have been listening avidly over the last few weeks – fascinating!
I was wondering if Dickson knows of any distance learning courses in General Parasitology – I would be very interested in following such a course.
Finally, just a small point, arising from an observation made by Dickson (TWIP 33) I think the rare human thorny headed worm Moniliformis moniliformis has the Cockroach Periplaneta americana as an intermediate host, rather than a paratenic host.
Perhaps, as I listen to the next podcasts, another TWIP aficionado has already pointed this out, if so, please ignore this.
looking forward to seeing many more new TWIP’s in the future
all the best
Peter from Cavan
In TWIP 54 there were a lot of pseudo apologies for Dicksons asides and I have to say no apologies are needed. I was unaware of the fascinating behavior of fig trees and their relationship to monkeys and bats. Please continue to wander off subject as the fancy strikes because it generally leads to me learning something I may have never come across any other way. I may be partial to this type of discourse as I ramble in both general discussions as well as emails so I will end this with a keep up the good work and go back to the task at hand of feeding this new calf who is waiting so patiently for me to finish up my email.
Sent from mobile device w/ a small keypad, forgive brevity and typos ; )
My name is Niall and I am a recent high school graduate working on a virology research project at Rocky Mountain Laboratories (part of the NIH/NIAID) in Hamilton, MT. Dickson may also be interested to know that I am an angler and my father is the local fisheries biologist working for the state. As such, I have heard a fair bit about whirling disease and would like to hear more if you haven't already done a show on it. Also, I have a quick question to ask you both. I will be attending Montana State University next year and majoring in microbiology. I am undecided as to what field of microbiology I will go into but have been intrigued by the following; virology, parasitology (especially of the Neglected Tropical Diseases), and the microbiome. I was just wondering if either of you had some tips or advice for an aspiring microbiologist. Anything helps.
Thank you both a bunch. I am a big fan of TWiV, TWiP, and TWiM and would love to hear what you have to say.
P.S. I just talked to my boss here at RML and apparently he knows Vince. His name is Marshall Bloom.
Tickborne Flavivirus Pathogenesis Section
Laboratory of Virology
Rocky Mountain Laboratories (NIH/NIAID)
Hi Vincent and Dickson,
I was listening to the new episode of TWiP (episode 52) and one of your listeners wrote in asking about tree parasites. While plant parasite is not my main field of research, I have written about one such parasite on the Parasite of the Day blog - the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus which causes the tree disease known as Pine Wilt.
The basis for that post was actually a PLoS Pathogens paper on the genomic characteristics of that particular parasite.
In addition, there are also numerous insects, nematodes, and bacteria that can infect plant tissue and induce gall formation. I feel that
Dickson might be fond of those plant parasites because much like Trichinella spiralis, these organisms are capable of manipulating the
architecture of the host's tissue, forcing it to grow structures that both house and feed the parasites - much like T. spiralis with its
Dear doctors Racaniello and Despomier,
I just wanted to write in with a bit of praise. I have been a regular listener of TWIV for over a year now, and I'm just now catching up with both TWIM and TWIP. I have to say after having listened to the episode on hook worm and the remarkable back story given by Dickson about that organism in a historical context, that I am truly impressed. I spent ten years reading about history outside of school in my youth, and I must say that I am deeply impressed by both the depth and breadth of Dickson's knowledge.
Thank you both for a wonderful show and the hours and hours of edutainment.
They come out when it rains because they can. It's not so much that they avoid wet tunnels when it rains as they usually avoid dry ground. When the ground is wet they can come out so they do.
Hello twip hosts,
I just listened to TWIP 52 and all the emails had to do with you guys mentioning stopping TWIP. I just discovered TWIP last summer (2012), and I've caught up with all the episodes! I just wanted to let you guys know that TWIP has kept my mind constantly busy during half day hikes in the Pacific Northwest Cascades! I thoroughly enjoy the report Vincent and Dick have. I love the jokes. It is one of my favorite podcasts.
I was trained as a Chemist at San Diego State, so I have a special connection to TWIM, with the SDSU hosts that are often on there. I now live near Portland, Oregon and hike quite frequently.
I hope none of the TWI's die, and I thank you two for all your work and information you've given to thousands of people.
Hello Dr. Racaniello and Dr. Despommier!
I, like many, had a sinking feeling in my stomach when cancelling the show was proposed earlier. I was refreshed to hear this will not happen! Dr. Despommier, do you know the Komuniecki's at The University of Toledo? I had the opportunity to do some work in her lab (Patricia) working with Ascaris suum. Ah, the trips to the slaughterhouse.
If I may make a suggestion for a TWIP, TWIM, and TWIV: drugs. A review of antiparsitic agents and resistance mechanisms. Likewise antibiotics and resistance mechanisms (the New Delhi metallo-beta lactamase, cfr resistance, erm resistance, effluc pumps, gyrase mutations and everything TB has). What a show(s) that would be. TWIV, well i know there are not as many antivirals (for non-retroviral infections) but why not. Then again there is no shortage of TWIV episodes (sorry Dr. D).
Thank you both so much for all of the education and the history lessons. I am always captivated by Dr. D's stories.
Rick in Toledo OH, patiently waiting for spring to come
Dear Vincent and Dickson,
Attached is a letter which I think represents a sad state of affairs for parasitologists, epidemiologists, physicians and particularly for patients. It is a decision probably driven purely by cost. In the past year, I have treated a patient at this hospital with amoebic dysentery. Was this patient part of the 0.3 percent? Could you address the quoted statistic about the overwhelming giardia/cryptosporidium being found nationwide?
Spencer Kroll MD PhD
It is 50F and sunny today in Central Illinois, with plenty of flooding in low lying areas.
I would like to start by saying Thank You for the three TWiX podcasts. I enjoy listening to them during my commutes and while I am out walking. They are helping to keep my skills in Immuno/Micro/Etc while I am busy with my medical school studies in many other topics also.
I want to point out one clarification that applies to this weeks TWiP #53. You stated that a positive PPD indicated an active TB infection. It actually indicates that the patient has been infected with TB at some point. Most individuals that are PPD positive will not develop active TB unless if there is an issue with their nutrition or immune system.
The active disease is when there is clinical or radiographic evidence of the disease. Without either of these the patient at worst has a latent form of TB. This is important to know because latent TB is virtually non-transmissible.
It is also important to note that some patients with HIV and other immune disorders that effect the T cell population will not react appropriately to a PPD test due to a lack of T cells that cause the skin reaction.
SIU School of Medicine
PS I will be at the ASM conference in Denver. Do you know where and when you will be recording any TWiXs while you are there?
Hello TWIP team,
I love your family of shows, but while listening to TWiP 53, I noticed that Dickson used the word Eskimo. I hate to play politically-correct police, but Eskimo is now considered as fairly derogatory (at least in Canada and Greenland). The word, meaning "eaters of raw meat" by some accounts, has been replaced here by the word Inuit.
Just something to consider. Love the show!
Marcel in Canada
I bought crabs from a local grocery (Pathmarket ) and noticed these small black ovals the size of sesame seeds (image attached and compared to the size of a quarter) on one of the legs and I was hoping you could identify this and confirm its normal and an ectoparsite. I love the show.
Dear Vincent and Dickson,
I just heard your most recent TWIP. Please keep these podcasts going! I love listening to your podcasts and hearing your enthusiasm for my favorite biological topic, parasites. Remember that for every fan that takes the time to write to you there are probably 20 other fans who have not written. Plus many "new" fans are still catching up on the archived episodes (I began listening to TWIP at around episode 35 and it took months to catch up). These podcasts make an excellent teaching tool and I certainly plan to incorporate them in my Parasitology courses. And they expose the parasitologist to other areas of research that they may not otherwise have explored.
Let me suggest some topics and guest for upcoming shows.
Parasites and behavior: You've touched on this, but I think the topic deserves its own show. I recommend asking Janice Moore at Colorado State.
Parasites and Ecology: Again, you've touched on this topic (especially in episode 44), but it left me wanting more. I recommend asking Kevin Lafferty at USGS and Tommy Cheung at UNE (who has written to you previously)
Insect parasites: parasitoid wasps would be fun to learn more about. You could also focus more on fleas and lice as parasites (as opposed to vectors of parasites).
Plant parasites: not my area, but it's something I'd like to learn more about.
John Janovy teaches Field Parasitology at the Cedar Point Biological Research Station at U of Nebraska. I'm sure he would enjoy being a guest on your podcast.
Saint Aardvark the carpeted writes:
Hi there -- I came across TWiP, TWiM and TWiV recently after following
a link from this article:
I downloaded the episode and was aghast...the idea of volunteering for a norovirus study was incredible. The entire episode was fascinating.
I could not stop listening, and ran around afterward telling everyone about what I'd learned.
I've added all three of your podcasts to my regular listening, and will be catching up on old episodes as well. I'm not a scientist, but
an interested amateur, and the level of detail is great -- I'm learning a lot, and I'm challenged to learn more. The atmosphere is
great, the guests are wonderful, and for the record I *love* the digressions and the weather reports...they make it feel comfortable
I'm sending this to TWiP because I just listened to the episode about malaria and was sad to hear that you're considering giving it up.
Please don't! The episode was fascinating, and I'm currently downloading more back episodes. I hope you continue to produce more.
Thank you very much for your work, and the generosity of you and all your guests.
A few months ago my wife asked me to look at and photograph a moribund grasshopper lying atop the leaves of a bush in our front yard.
It appeared to me that it was a grasshopper covered with eggs. My wife wanted no more such grasshoppers fearing they might eat some plant she treasured in our garden. I knocked it to the ground and stepped on it and the kicked it under the bush.
I did immediately send the photo to my friend who has a Ph.D. in entomology and she informed me that those were NOT eggs but a rare form of grasshopper mite. The mites had infested the grasshopper and killed it by sucking its vital juices. She wanted to know if I could find the dead grasshopper and stick it in a Zip-Lock bag and cool it with dry ice and give it to her. She had contacted the leading mite expert in the USA, I think some fellow in Michigan, who said he could only identify the species with certainty if he had one to examine.
By this time it was the next morning and while I did find the grasshopper's remains, alas, the mites were gone I suppose because the grasshopper was dead and no longer capable of giving them a delicious meal. I did provide her with the carcass with the hope that there might be a mite or two left on the carcass, but apparently there were none present.
Have you ever studied or become aware of mites of this type before? I did learn there are grasshopper mites but the common one[s] look nothing like these.
You just never know when you will find something rare.
I have added photos to my flickr account that you might enjoy, as you did last time I mentioned this site to you:
I have also attached a beaver I photographed a couple of days ago in one of the ponds near my house.
Hello, professors. This is neko from NZ again.
I just listened to twip episode 50. You mentioned you haven't got any email and you might stop your podcasts. Now that you've mentioned it, I can imagine your mailbox is overflowing with email from all over the world, but here is another one, from land of the long white cloud.
When I started listening to twip, I was fascinated but also couldn't help feeling uncomfortable. I used to love steak rare but I no longer feel like risking it. I can't help but cook them well done for my family now. I now wash my hands and cutting boards often with detergent after handling raw meat. On the other hand, I can eat pork without hesitation after defrosting. All thanks to your educational podcasts. If you are looking for some ideas for future episodes, I'm really interested in food safety, just every day risk factors and preventive measures, associating with parasites.
At the end of episode 50, you talked about toxoplasma. One of my favourite podcasts from Japan mentioned toxoplasma being able to manipulate some neurotransmitter in the brain. I think he was talking about this article.
That Japanese host said that toxoplasma might be responsible for some suicidal cases if this article is true. That, the people committed suicide might have been infected by toxoplasma. He was wondering weather it will bring down the suicidal rate if we systematically carry out a test to find the infected and treat them. What are your thoughts on that?
Lastly, I don't mind if it's monthly, or bi-monthly, but please do continue educating us.
I recently wrote to TWIV to express my admiration and ask a question about viruses of fungi. However, I have not previously written to TWIP, though I listen to it almost as often.
I am an undergraduate, and I work as a tutor for the biology survey class which all new biology majors must take. We're currently covering Biodiversity, and I cannot express to you how fabulous it has been to be able to enliven our discussions on Phylums Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Apicomplexa and so on with the stories I've gleaned from TWiP. I take a particular (perhaps a little sadistic) pleasure in relating the story about how outhouses perched over lakes and rivers led to endemic fish tapeworm, or how toxoplasma gondii can cause radical behavior changes in rats (and maybe humans).
Every now and then, I even manage to turn on another person to TWiP, TWiM, and TWiV. Keep up the good work! You help to remind me of the inherently joyful and curious nature of science - which undergraduate coursework often obscures or obliterates entirely.
Another tool for field work.
202 specimens of Astronotus ocellatus (Oscars), were collected from a freshwater lake in the state of Amapá, northern Brazil.
A total of 6,308,912 parasites belonging to 11 different taxa were found. Protozoa was the most abundant; flukes, worms were also prevalent and abundant.
No Amazon sushi for me.
I used to keep Oscars. Didn't realise the parasitic load would be that high.
In relation to parasitic species being 40% overall.
The link also examines the notion of the food web and the role of parasites.
See http://www.smbc-comics.com/ for the latest, and you can go back to this one if you wish...
Oh - and thanks for the continuing podcasts, too!
Yet another Jim from Virginia
Another innovative idea used in Africa:
Scientists diagnose intestinal worms -- using an iPhone microscope
also: How to pronounce Shankar. It's a name widely recognised in India. The first pronunciation is the Indian one, the second is akin to the way the British overlords butchered the local languages.
Dickson's first two choices of people he would like to meet (Lincoln and Darwin) shared a birthday, February 12, 1809.
All the best,
Hi Drs. Despommier and Racaniello,
This week you wondered why the immune-activating receptor for Toxoplasma gondii, TLR11, is present in mice but not in humans. You noted that it looks like there's no selective pressure keeping it around in us and it has become a pseudogene. You asked why mice then need it since it doesn't harm the host.
Is it possible that rodents need extra defenses against T. gondii because it changes their behaviour and makes them more susceptible to predation? "Toxo" could be killing the mice indirectly. We descended from tiny crawly things, but when our ancestors moved up the food chain, they wouldn't need this defense any more. If it is true that T.gondii increases your risk of auto collision then perhaps we will see a selective sweep over the next million years!
I just finished listening to TWIP 50 and got sad when you guys were partly demoralized to continue the series. I would like to suggest you merging TWIP and TWIM, to make the burden of making these excellent podcasts a little less exhausting. You could find a parasitologist every now and then (if Dickson is not availabe) and speak about these things in a larger group. For example Elio would probably know something and Michael, as he seems to have knowledge about almost everything! This could be embedded with doing like a ratio of 1:3 with bacteria (meaning every fourth podcast on parasites or so). Please consider this, as I object to quitting the series but am also worried about Vincent’s mental health with his work-burden!
I would also love to hear Dickson explain the vertical farm-thingy. The name is pretty obvious what it is, but a little more in depth. The book is on my list of books to buy, but I have still a few to read before buying new ones so I would like a little preview!
Thank you for the great podcasts.
Kim, biomedical undergraduate from Stockholm.
Just a thank you from the Netherlands. I'll keep listening. And if you could do an episode on tree parasites (with external expertise ) I'd be ever so grateful. I never took any biology in school, but I can still understand the podcast ( I am a science nerd though ). What is your opinion on Carl Zimmer"s Parasite Rex ? It seemed quite accurate to me, and is very well written, but I'm no expert. Would you recommend it to the general public?
PS Majored in medieval history, now a tree-worker
To Our Esteemed TWIP Duo:
I waited with bated breath for #50 TWIP for a month. TWIP is my favorite of the tri-TWIs! Imagine my dismay when the discussion at the end of it was about whether you should end TWIP (I listen to the end). We are listening! We just didn't write because there was no TWIP to write about for a while. I find TWIP to be the most informative and comfortable to me. Vincent and Dickson have a great rapport. I work in infectious disease with patients with Toxoplamosis, Leishmaniasis, Lime disease, Malaria, Loa Loa, Strongyloides, Giardia, etc., and always look to understand these parasitic diseases better. Your discussions clarify so much for me so please keep TWIP. I would like a TWIP that includes information regarding Sarcocystosis. Long live TWIP!
Clinical Research Nurse
Good morning Dr. Depomier and Dr. Racaniello,
I listened to episode 50 on Monday, congratulations, and nearly had a panic attack when I heard that the show may come to an untimely end. I have not listened to all the episodes but have been listening sind late summer early fall and always excited to listen though as of yet I don't understand much about parasitic life cycles. Anyways, my contribution to saving TWIP is proposing a topic that I would like to see discussed. Chagas disease recently trended on the news and twitter and I thought it was pretty cool. I know you have discussed T. cruzi before but here are two links I'm interested in, a news article.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130214092353.htm and the corresponding paper
first - to let you know how much i am enjoying your podcasts. my husband steered me your way with #38 about dracunculiasis. i am working my way though all them now while i am quilting on my sewing machine. then i will go through the viruses. i was trained as a chemist; my biology education has just been picked up over the years (many now). this is a great way to learn, and you two are fun to listen to. thanks
second - i have great-grandparents who left the mississippi valley for oregon in 1845 & 1853 because of malaria. in one family account, one was so sick from it that he could only lay in the wagon for the first month of the trip. (as an aside - can you imagine walking all the way from iowa to oregon?) i have heard that one/perhaps the major reason why we don't have malaria in the u.s. now (and italy & other places) is that because of our mosquito eradication programs, principly with ddt, we dropped the human resevoir of the disease enough so that there is not enough to propagate the disease. we certainly have drained a lot of swamps. that helps, but i doubt that it is the answere. mosquitos will always still have more than enough places to breed. i know that ddt had a bad rep, justifiably so. but it broke the cycle of transmission, and then it was no longer needed. what sort of studies have there been on transmission rates vs rates of infection in the population vs the others transmission factors?
I love this podcast. I learn so much from you two...just listening to #50. Will be thinking of what other topics or papers might make an interesting episode. Was very excited to see that there was a new episode! I am subscribed via the iPhone and iPad podcast app.
All the best from a fan in Naples, FL
Yes, I'm still listening. Fine episode.
I think I now know a bit about what complement is.
What is your guys' favorite parasites and why?
Dear Vincent and Dixon,
I am not too proud to beg.
Don't stop TWIP-ing.
I am a recent devotee to all things TWIx. Love it.
You have made my commute much more productive; like a journal club while I am behind the wheel.
I just listened to TWIP podcast 50. My colleagues work on Factor H and Neisseria (maybe good for a TWIM podcast); so I found this mosquito/malaria/complement business was very cool. Of course, mosquitos have their own complement C3 like factors that are involved in controlling malaria. Maybe complement is the achilles heal for this parasite that we should think about more?
As an "insect immunologist", I am looking forward to listening to episode 51. Lost of great mosquito immunology that you might consider for TWIP.
Don't stop TWIP-ing. If you build it, they will come.
Keep up the great work!
P.S. I won't tell Shankar that you butcher his name.
Neal Silverman Ph.D.
Professor & Research Director
Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology
Department of Medicine
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Hello Vince and Dick,
I just found your podcast and I love it! You have some wonderfully witty banter.
I am only on my 4th episode (that's what you call a podcast segment right?), and have a question pertaining to my original reason for searching out your podcast.
I am working on the research portion for a short story I am wanting to write about what the world would look like if we knew exactly how different parasites effect behavior. Think of it as a thought experiment dealing with the nature of environmental determinism and the concept of free will. Say, would people purposefully expose themselves to a parasite for a desired effect, or use one as an alibi for an act of bad faith? I may bring in epigenetics into this story as well, but I'm not sure how it will fit. It is meant to be science fiction with a bioethical slant.
Importantly, I don't want it to seem too sensationalist though, so I am trying to base as much of the story in reality as possible. Hence listening to your podcast! Do you have any suggestions on where I should look for information about this? Do you have a podcast/episode/segment about this? It's validity as an idea? Conspiracy theory or reality?
Also, love the mini-history lessons. Myself, I am a student of history of science/medicine/technology and seriously appreciate it! A++ will listen again.
If he is of Indian origin, the first name is not pronounced as in chancre
Minas in Portuguese means ‘mines’.
You wanted to know how many NZ listeners you have so now you know you have one more. :p
Keep up the great work.
I saw this in my inbox this morning and thought that it would be a good TWiP pick of the week.
Dear Vincent and Dickson
I thought that this paper from PLOS one would be worth a mention on TWiP
The fossil from Brazil has been found to contain the oldest known examples of tapeworm eggs.
The specimen was so well preserved that a worm larva could be seen in one of the eggs.
Professors, you've discussed this idea before, but I thought you'd enjoy this nice summary from Nature:
And I do enjoy your podcasts. Thank you for sharing your wonderful conversations!
Sincerely, another "Jim" from Virginia
I've been fascinated with parasites for years, ever since reading Peeps, a novel by Scott Westerfield. While it is fiction, every other chapter focused on a particular parasite and described its life cycle.
When I found this podcast, I nearly burst from happiness! While I am no longer a wildlife biology student (I recently switched to an English major - what a change, eh?), I still love learning more about parasitism. So many people find it odd that I'm so enamoured with such "gross" creatures, but I think they're just nifty.
Anyway, I just wanted to thank you for starting this podcast. It is both informative and entertaining. Keep up the excellent work!
Saw this and it instantly reminded me of Dickson's heavy breathing in the background.
I became intersted in parasites of the gills in fresh water fish, esp Myxoma fundubli, and was surprised to learn tha this animal produces spores. How common is that? Your TWIPMV is marvelous, thank you so much.
Dear Vincent and Dickson,
Here's a link to an interesting study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism that was done in China suggesting that schistosome infection may curb diabetes risk. The researchers detected an association between previous schistosome infection and a lower prevalence of diabetes in patients. This may hint at a link between glucose metabolism and T cell mediated cytokine secretion. Before I tell patients to go seek out schistosome infection, perhaps more studies need to be done.
Association of Previous Schistosome Infection With Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural China
I apologize in advance for the large volume of correspondence, and for not knowing the entire catalogue of what has and has not been covered. I send these e-mails with only the utmost respect and admiration.
I was so ready to roll my eyes into the back of my head for that story, but found myself captivated. I believe I sense the gift.
Also any chance of exploring the facts of the great Candiru myth?
William S. Burroughs wrote about the candiru in his 1959 novel Naked Lunch, describing it as "a small eel-like fish or worm about one-quarter inch through and two inches long patronizing certain rivers of ill repute in the Greater Amazon Basin, will dart up your *censored* and hold himself there by sharp spines with precisely what motives is not known since no one has stepped forward to observe the candiru's life-cycle in situ." Burroughs also mentioned it in The Yage Letters: "At that time I was stationed at the remote jungle outpost of Candiru, so named from a tiny eel like fish that infests the rivers of that area. This vicious fish introduces itself into the most intimate parts of the human body, maintaining itself there by poisonous barbs while it feeds on the soft membranes". The fish is also referred to in David Grann's The Lost City of Zand in Chuck Palahniuk's Fight Club (novel).
Not knowing anything about its reproductive or life cycle, its difficult to say if this should be classed a predator or parasite, but in my book anything that "allegedly" swims up your urethra and needles itself in there permanantly should be classed a parasite, although one that certainly shows no regard for the life of the host, although I'm sure there must be surgical interventions to prevent kidney rupture.
It should also be noted that the Candiru is a major plot point in the Season 1 Episode 9 of the animated Adult Swim show "The Venture Brothers" entitled "Are You There God? It's Me Dean."
The episode appears to have been available for free some time in the past, but is now certainly $2 on iTunes. http://itunes.apple.com/us/tv-season/the-venture-bros.-season-1/id256218414
With regard to TWIP & TWIM & TWIV: Keep 'em comin' !
Possible reservoirs in a vertical farmer:
Ten little piggies.
A large variety of ducks:
Thoracic, R lymphatic
(R & L & common) hepatic, (cystic & common) bile, pancreatic etc.
All viscera except the central nervous system have pain receptors. They are activated by stimuli appropriate to the organ, which are not necessarily the same as the stimuli for somatic receptors. The intestine can be cut with a knife without pain, but just about everyone has experienced the pain from stretching of the gut. The pain receptors in most solid organs is located in their (fibrous) capsules, and are stimulated by ACUTE stretching or ACUTE inflammation.
Insects, bugs & arachnids:
It was quite clear to me in school that all bugs were insects, but that not all insects were bugs. I would not have graduated if I were not clear on that point. I had to unlearn English after coming to the uS of A (lower case "u", as that is the way it was originally intended, in the Declaration of Independence).
Likewise, I would not have graduated if I had lumped ticks and mites with insects. But of course in the uS, one must not expect to hear about Medical Arachnidology.
In my childhood, I remember swarms of male mosquitoes swirling above the heads of people in the evenings. One knew that they were male because they had mustaches (feathery antennae). Therefore one was not concerned about being bitten by them.
Dear Dick Despommier
My name is Ruth
I am a listener of twip and recently I decided to look into your vertical farming that you mention on the podcast.
While I was watching a video of you explaining vertical farming you mentioned soil-less growth in an urban environment and I immediately thought of another video that saw earlier this week.
The video is about a man named Eric Maundu - who combined aquaponics with fish farming in an amazing way. Using a very small amount of space he set up a system with a fish tank . The fish water with the fish waste is carried on a basin of rocks (in which sit plants). Bacteria break down the fish waste and the plants use the nutrients. Afterwards the water -minus the waste is returned to the fish tank. Maundu also mentions that the fish could be edible types - so you could grow two resources at once.
I just thought it was so amazingly efficient and thought you may be interested also.
Here's the link to the video .
Also I would like to thank you and Vincent very much for This Week in Parasitism and this week in virology - both wonderful entertainment and education :)
I'd like to learn more about sarcocystis, a parasite that usually only affects animals but seems to have infected some of our military.
To: This Week in Parasitology podcast (Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier)
Here's evidence-based advice for cat owners unwilling to get rid of their pets:
"...cat litter should be changed daily, and pregnant women should delegate this task to others.
"Many scoopable cat litter manufacturers suggest scooping fecal lumps daily and changing litter weekly, but this is likely to give a false sense of security because the oocycts might sporulate in the leftover feces; in addition, the scooping spoon is likely to become contaminated with oocysts; hundreds of oocycts may be present in a milligram of infected feces. There is also the risk of cats tracking infected feces throughout the house.
"We do not currently have a practical recommendation for safe disposal of cat litter other than disposing it in a heavy duty plastic bag with the hope that anoxia will kill T. gondii oocysts."
Dubey et al: Survival of T. Gondii in Cat Litter.
Journal of Parasitology, Oct 2011 at 753.
"Gloves should be worn while gardening, while changing litter and while handling soil potentially contaminated with cat feces.
"Owners may also be advised to keep dogs away from the cat litter box to prevent ingestion of and passage through of oocysts.
"Vegetables should be washed thoroughly before eating, because they may have been contaminated with cat feces."
Dubey: Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans,
2d ed. 2009 at 54.
Here's what I'm doing with 3 cats my wife insists on keeping:
Using a small open litter box, arrange a big plastic bag covering the bottom and extending up over the sides. Add the litter. At least once every 24 hours, wearing disposable examination gloves, lift the bag containing all the litter, knot the top and take it outside to the trash container. (No scooping.) Replace bag and litter.
We switched to pine pellets for litter, which is much cheaper--especially from farm or horse supply stores.
Public health risk:
Although most vets believe that cats shed oocsyts once for a few days, the leading researcher says, "Whether naturally infected cats shed oocysts more than once in their life is unknown."
Dubey: Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans, 2d ed. 2009 at 36 - 39.
While everyone was skeptical of the initial reports of brain cysts leading to mental illness and car crashes, the more recent research has made such claims more plausible. Given the limits of research tools and funding (and how small oocysts are and how hard it is to evaluate brain cysts...), it seems prudent to minimize our individual risk of toxo from cats and encourage more effective public health efforts (like changing the labels on cat litter.)
I assume you've been trying to get JP Dubey on your podcast. Please
Tomorrow starts the XVIII International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria Conference here in Rio de Janeiro. I read Peter Hotez will be participating in a round-table session on “What is the future role of academic journals in the research, control and prevention of tropical diseases?”.I myself will be presenting partial results of my graduate project on the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis in the past. Dr. Racaniello recently participated in the Brazilian Virology Society meeting congress in São Paulo, but what about Dr. Despommier? It would have been awesome meeting you both here! But well, too many congresses, too little time, right? (and money, for that matter!)
All the best
I have a pick of the week: Windowfarms, it's a non-profit vertical gardening project: How to make your own vertical window garden. If you want a full description listen to Britta Rileys TED-talk, I can't do it justice. I don't know if this is a fitting pick, as it's more a Dickson pick, than a parasitology pick. But I think it is amazing, I'm definitely doing this:)
Keep up the good work
Dear Vincent and Dickson.
I would like to point out that the "Female Owners of Cats More Prone to Suicide" article mentioned in TWiP 43 is rather misleading. The study mentioned made no mention of cat ownership and men were not included in the study as it was only mothers who were included in the cohort.
Most human infections are from contaminated meat, not from handling infected cats.
If a cat is infected with Toxoplasma gondii the oocysts are only shed for a short period of time, typically less than 14 days, before the cat's immune system stops oocyst production. The cat should then be immune to further infection.
Dr Postolache has noted limitations to the study, such as the inability to determine the cause of the suicidal behaviour.
"T. gondii infection is likely not a random event and it is conceivable that the results could be alternatively explained by people with psychiatric disturbances having a higher risk of becoming T. gondii infected prior to contact with the health system.”
Could the high rate of infection reported in France be due to the popularity there of rare meat?
Further information on Cats and toxoplasmosis:
Dear Vincent and Dickson.
Thank you for a fascinating and informative TWiP, I thoroughly enjoyed the linking of parasitism and ecology. Following your request for listeners to find more information on the life cycle of nematomorphs I did some reading and found that many nematomorph species use a "paratenic" or transport host in which the larva forms cysts and do not develop further until the paratenic host is eaten by a scavenger or predator.(1)
Crickets are generally omnivorous but some species are carnivorous. A wide range of species can be used as paratenic hosts including flatworms, snails ans some nematomorph species make the transition from water to land by forming cysts in aquatic insect larvae, with the cysts surviving the host's metamorphosis to an flying adult which can then convey them to land. Adult nematomorphs are short lived and do not feed, they die after mating. One species of nematomorph has been discovered from Kenya that is parthenogenic and lacks males(2) Some sites I looked at mentioned the morphological similarity of the larval nematomorphs to some adult marine worms(3)
continuing: I came across a bit more information on how nematomorph worms influence insect behaviour.
David Biron, Frédéric Thomas and colleagues at the Laboratory of Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases at Frances National Scientific Research Center in Montpellier., France, have found the worms produce proteins that mimic some found in the insects nervous system. Somehow these prompt the insect to jump into water, allowing the adult worm to swim away. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/09/0901_050901_wormparasite.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=76BnVsaLiR0
Dear Vincent and Dickson,
I really enjoyed your episode on the horsehair worm and food web ecology. In case if you haven't already found it, here is a review on the biology of nematomorphs which you might find useful:
Hanelt, B., Thomas, F., and Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. (2005) Biology of the Phylum Nematomorpha. Advances in Parasitology, 59: 243–305
Also, I was pleasantly surprised to hear you talk about the New Zealand cockle-trematode system. Those papers you mentioned originated from the lab where I did my PhD - in fact, my PhD thesis (and a small part of my postdoc work) consisted of research which followed up on some of the questions which were raised by those initial studies you cited, delving deeper into the ecology of that host-parasite system. Here are a small selection of publications which pertain specifically to the cockle-trematode system.
Leung, T.L.F. and Poulin, R. (2007) Interactions between parasites of the cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi: Hitch-hikers, resident-cleaners, and habitat-facilitators. Parasitology, 134: 247-255.
Leung, T.L.F. and Poulin, R. (2007) Recruitment rate of gymnophallid metacercariae in the New Zealand cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi: an experimental test of the hitch-hiking hypothesis. Parasitology Research, 101: 281-287.
Leung, T.L.F., Poulin, R. and Keeney, D.B. (2009) Accumulation of diverse parasite genotypes within the bivalve second intermediate host in the digenean Gymnophallus sp. International Journal for Parasitology, 39: 327-331.
Leung, T.L.F., Keeney, D.B. and Poulin, R. (2010) Genetics, intensity-dependence, and host manipulation in the trematode Curtuteria australis: following the strategies of others? Oikos, 119:393-400. Leung, T.L.F. and Poulin, R. (2010) Infection success of different trematode genotypes in two alternative intermediate hosts: evidence for intraspecific specialisation? Parasitology, 137:321-328.
Leung, T.L.F. and Poulin, R. (2011) Intra-host competition between co-infecting digeneans within a bivalve second intermediate host: dominance by priority-effect or taking advantage of others? International Journal for Parasitology, 41: 449-454.
Vincent was wondering how the cockles become infected with the trematodes - I can answer that as I conducted (and came up with the protocols for) experimental infections of those cockles, and spent many, many hours observing and documenting the process. The free-living cercariae are initially sucked in through the cockle's inhalant siphon, once inside the cockle's mantle cavity, they immediate cling to the foot and begin penetrating into the muscle. Once within the foot, they then migrate through the muscular tissue for some time (a few hours at most) before encysting at a suitable spot (usually the tip of the foot). During one of my observation periods, I recorded some footage of the cercariae penetrating the foot tissue - the link to which I recall I've sent to you in another e-mails, but to save you the trouble of wading through masses of old e-mails, here it is again: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k4-m3IsAlAQ
P.S. I really appreciate all the effort and time which must go into making all the "This Week In" podcast series and the role they play in educating the public about the unseen and overlooked majority of life on this planet. I am the writer and co-administrator of the Parasite of the Day blog (http://dailyparasite.blogspot.com), where I write about newly published research on parasites that I happen to come across, in a manner that is accessible to the general public. I consider that my small contribution, as a scientist, for public education and promotion about parasites, parasitism, and parasitology.
A Conversation with Robert Sapolsky
A few years ago, I sat down with a couple of the Toxo docs over in our hospital who do the Toxo testing in the Ob/Gyn clinics. And they hadn't heard about this behavioral story, and I'm going on about how cool and unexpected it is. And suddenly, one of them jumps up, flooded with 40-year-old memories, and says, "I just remembered back when I was a resident, I was doing a surgical transplant rotation. And there was an older surgeon, who said, if you ever get organs from a motorcycle accident death, check the organs for Toxo. I don't know why, but you find a lot of Toxo." And you could see this guy was having a rush of nostalgic memories from back when he was 25 and all because he was being told this weird factoid ... ooh, people who die in motorcycle accidents seem to have high rates of Toxo. Utterly bizarre.
What is the bottom line on this? Well, it depends; if you want to overcome some of your inhibitions, Toxo might be a very good thing to have in your system. Not surprisingly, ever since we started studying Toxo in my lab, every lab meeting we sit around speculating about which people in the lab are Toxo-infected, and that might have something to do with one's level of recklessness. Who knows? It's very interesting stuff, though.
You want to know something utterly terrifying? Here's something terrifying and not surprising. Folks who know about Toxo and its affect on behavior are in the U.S. military. They're interested in Toxo. They're officially intrigued. And I would think they would be intrigued, studying a parasite that makes mammals perhaps do things that everything in their fiber normally tells them not to because it's dangerous and ridiculous and stupid and don't do it. But suddenly with this parasite on board, the mammal is a little bit more likely you go and do it. Who knows? But they are aware of Toxo.
On TWIP 42 you decried the lack of a Microbe World search engine. Well here's a little used Google feature that can help. To find the TWIP episode about toxoplasma simply type this as a Google search:
site:microbeworld.org toxoplasma "this week in parasitism"
As long as the site allows the Google crawlers the result is usually better than site search features. Unless of course the site search feature is an embedded Google search.
Looks like the TWIP you were looking for was #12.
Love TWIP, TWIV and TWIM. I have heard them all. Some multiple times. But my favorite has to be TWIP largely because of the happy accident of a world class parasitologist and a world class raconteur being embodied in your co-host. Dickson Despommier is without peer.
Dickson's modest erudition and your nagging straight man routine make for a very entertaining show. Please don't think I am belittling the part you play.
That you could do what you do so graciously, given all your accomplishments, is rare. Lesser men would let their egos get in the way.
That I can also learn something is also much appreciated. Don't change a thing.
Thank you, Don
Dear Dr. Despommier,
I am a student doing post-bac work in premed, and was intrigued by your discussion of a possible study of the contamination of dog run soils by Toxocara Canis. I'm designing a study in the Chicago Land area to gather this data, and was wondering if you could recommend a method of testing for eggs in the soil, i.e. if there is any preferential methods in your opinion. Also, I heard on your podcast that there is some graduate work being done in New York, and was also wondering if they would want to compare data after both our studies are done. Thank you for the great work both you and Dr. Racaniello put out every week, your podcast is an absolute joy to listen to.
I love your TWIP and TWIM and am sharing a balance of them with students as time permits. My absolutely only complaint is that ... as an old geezer ... my hearing is not what it once was and for me ... there are often times when a speakers' voice seems to almost disappear ... sort of a mumble for me ... I believe this is because you speak ... and this is natural ... as if you are speaking to someone sitting close to you. I believe it would help if you each spoke as if you were speaking to an audience ... maybe with a microphone and never allowing your mouth to point away from the audience ... aiming the sound down instead of forward ... without losing the cordial atmosphere. Trivia, I know and I doubt anyone else has described similar issues. Keep up the great work. It is great to have a chance to learn from your discussions. I know you spend a lot of time preparing these and I am truly grateful. Enunciate is the word that has been escaping me but I believe that is the core of my problem.
Firstly I'd like to say I am a huge fan of your shows- TWIP, TWIV and TWIM. I am a student in Perth, Australia and am in the final year of my zoology major, and first year of my microbiology major. I am extremely interested in getting some experience in a lab to do with viruses, parasites and microbiology, so I was wondering if there was any help or advise at all you could give me?
Good morning Drs. Racaniello and Despommier;
My name is Amanda and I just love your TWIP podcast. This article caught my eye and I thought it would be of interest to both of you considering that it seems to be about a virus parasitizing another virus!
Also, a recent study on DNA methylation in Trich: http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/32932/title/Genomic-Methylation-Collector/
Keep up the good work! Can't wait to hear another podcast…you guys keep my brain active when doing routine lab tasks!
Research Technician at Massachusettes General Hospital
FYI for Dick just to show where the subject is appearing, with comments.
Jim Smithfield, VA
via Slashdot by samzenpus on 11/5/12
kkleiner writes "Short on arable land? One solution would be to plan up. Singapore, a small country that imports most of its food, has now begun selling vegetables from its first vertical farm. And even while they're more expensive the vegetables are already selling faster than they can be grown. If the farms prove sustainable – both technologically and economically – they could provide a much desired supplement to Singapore's locally grown food and serve as a model for farming in other land-challenged areas."
Dear Professors Vincent Racaniello and Dick Despommier,
I am a long retired biochemist who spent his career in Public Health. The two things that I miss the most are access to journals, and the round table discussions that I held in my office every morning. I accomplished this by providing free coffee, and often Danish. Soon my office was bursting with those wishing to talk about what they were doing, where they were having problems, and what they were going to do about them. These were not meetings in the normal sense, but rather verbal free-for-alls where many problems were resolved, many friends made, and aptitudes which were dormant came alive.
While I often worked with the biochemistry of microbes, I never had occasion to do any work with parasites other than see an interesting slide or specimen that someone wanted to display to everyone in sight. When I started listening to TWIP, I first I thought it was the filling of an enormous cavern of personal ignorance that drew me towards your show. But then I realized it was the Socratic method that formed the backbone of your lectures. With Professor Racaniello so often playing the foil, and the general banter it was almost like being back at my favorite time of the day at work. As I now live in a rural area and can no longer have such conversations with my old colleagues, this has truly gladdened my heart and filled in a missing part of my life that goes far beyond the knowledge provided. While I realize that this is not your primary intent, it is a delightfuly serendipitous collateral benefit. I would like to urge you to ignore those curmudgeons and martinets who demand a formal, structured and pedantic presentation. You are at your best when you allow your personalities to show through.
This is particularly significant to me as I had been in an undergraduate honors program that had about 40 profs and a dozen students. We were completely self directed, and met either one on one, or in small groups with the profs. We got to know them as people, and as a result leared more and did more than we ever would have under more normal circumstances. It was unfortunate that this outstanding experiment was far too expensive to be broadened to the rest of the students.
Before I wear out your patience, I would like to note that I listen to many such podcasts, but that yours is the only one that does not request financial assistance (which I usually provide.) You program is most worthy of some mechanism of recognition. So I thought perhaps a donation in your names and TWIP to be a possible method of recognition of your outstanding work. Would you please advise me as to your favorite charity or research facility in parasitology that you would prefer the donation to be made.
Truly gratefully yours, Michael
Robert writes: Sirs, In September 1903 the British satirical magazine Punch published an insomniac's ode to the students of tropical disease:
Men of science, you that dare
Beard the microbe in his lair
Tracking through the jungly thickness
Afric's germ of Sleeping Sickness
Hear , oh hear my parting plea
Send a microbe home to me.
Sometimes it is better not to get what you ask.
Thank you so much for the parasitology podcast. I am encouraging my children and nephews who will probably pursue health related careers to listen to it, first because it is such an interesting “fly through” of the related science, and secondly because I find you two so interesting. However, my family eats a whole lot of sushi, and I haven’t been able to find the sushi episode on iTunes. Did that end up getting made?
P.S. I had been imagining myself to be a sort of forager, and would eat the semi-fermented pears that fell from my tree after cutting away the portions containing ants and worms and washing them a bit, but after watching some YouTube videos about roundworm infections, I got a little bit afraid, since I don’t know but that the pears had fallen onto soil or leaves that had traces of dog, opossum, squirrel, rabbit, raccoon, or bird feces. However, a professor friend of mine told me that our immune system kills roundworms for us, and it’s only children who are at risk.
PPS. Since I also occasionally dip into alternative health websites, I wonder if you have ever podcasted related to the “clean hypothesis” of allergies and the alleged cures of asthma and other allergies from exposure to roundworms (in controlled situations) and hookworms in uncontrolled situations. I think a lot of people are interested in auto-immune disorders lately, and those of us who live somewhat dirty and untidy lives wonder if somehow environmental stimuli are keeping us robustly healthy.
Hello Dixon and Vincent!
Your research and real life experience is slowly getting summarized by researchers so that it can be understood by reporters (aka those who
have a disproportionately loud voice in society):
The article is attempting to tie lack of MPV (microbes, parasites, viruses) to inflammatory diseases, which might be a stretch. I don't know if there is a dearth or an abundance of research for either side of this proposed relationship. But it's promising on the surface and hopefully the political forces at work destroying science in our country won't do the same for this research.
An excerpt from the concluding paragraphs:
"Since time immemorial, a very specific community of organisms - microbes, parasites, some viruses - has aggregated to form the human superorganism. Mounds of evidence suggest that our immune system anticipates these inputs and that, when they go missing, the organism comes unhinged."
Have a fantastic week fellas!
Hello Parasite hosts!
I have written twip before to express my appreciation for the show. I still appreciate it very much and it still helps me get through my days auditing.
I ran across this article on reddit.com/r/science, http://lifestyle.iafrica.com/wellness/813618.html , which makes this discovery sound like a guaranteed cure for all forms of Malaria with just one oral dose. Thinking that was a rather large claim I did some digging and found the original story, http://www.science.uct.ac.za/news/?id=8220&t=dn , this article is a little more reserved, though not much, with its language. I am interested in what both of you think of this? Is this the wonder drug they make it seem like?
South African researcher find single dose cure for malaria: http://www.treehugger.com/health/south-african-researchers-find-single-dose-cure-for-malaria.html
Dear parasitology lovers,
Just came across your blog through recommendation of a colleague and heard your conversation on the worm in the eye.
The name seems to be the local meaning of "worm" as quoted on page 643 in the book "A HISTORY OF HUMANHELMINTHOLOGY by DAVID I. GROVE (link: http://www.scribd.com/doc/57580301/Book) from the publication #49: GUYOT. Ophthalmie produite par des vers dans les yeux à la côte d'Angole. Abstracted in J N Arrachart's Mémoires, Dissertations et Observations de Chirurgie, Paris, pp228-233, 1805. (Originally presented to the Academy of Surgery in Paris in 1778).
And if I understand correctly you claimed that Cobbold was a German. Although being a German myself Cobbold was British, a son of a Suffolk clergyman (Principles and Practice of Clinical Parasitology, Gillespie /Pearson, 2001, page 3.
Dear Vincent and Dickson,
I am a veterinarian with a PhD in virology, and I am in my second year of anatomic pathology residency at the New England Primate Research Center. I just recently discovered the TWiM, TWiV and TWiP series of podcasts and they are great! I am training for my first marathon and my long runs were becoming quite tedious with the same old songs on my iPod every day. Now, I download another episode of TWIP every time I head out for a long run and I always have something interesting to listen to. I enjoy TWiM and TWiV, but TWiP is especially great while I am studying for my pathology boards. Although TWiP is based mainly around human diseases, most of these parasites are, of course, also quite relevant to veterinary medicine. Your amusing anecdotes and interesting stories help to cement the life cycles of these fascinating creatures in my head and your entertaining banter makes me feel like I am running with company every time. Thanks for helping the miles fly by and keep up
the good work!
Topic suggestion -- I noted recently a news article regarding a treatment method for malaria that addressed the parasite's ability to cause an infected red blood cell to lodge in a capillary and thus avoid being filtered by the spleen. I don't recall you discussing this aspect of the infection. I don't know how effective the treatment is, but the fact that the parasite does this is way cool.
See for example: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6348780
Software engineer (for a SEM manufacturer)
Trematodes are commonly referred to as flukes. This term can be traced back to the Saxon name for flounder, and refers to the flattened, rhomboidal shape of the worms.
re men stealing meat from lions
Check out this video on YouTube:
Dear Vincent and Dickson,
Let me start thanking you for encouraging me to carry a healthier life. Since taking the bus to the lab each day meant a 20 mins ride, and your podcasts are usually longer, I decided to start waking up earlier and walk every day instead, that way I can hear the whole episode! I feel somehow infected by a parasite podcast that modifies my behaviour in order to be listened, reaching its objective when I arrive at the lab commenting on the last episode heard.
After your discussion on the origins of the term Loa loa, I did some internet research and came up with an article published in 1991 by John D. Ruby and John E. Hall. Since it's really short, I copied it here for you to read:
"It has recently been called to our attention that the word 'loa', used for centuries, first by Africans and later by parasitologists, to refer to the 'eye worm', also appears in the terminology of voodoo or Vodun where it refers to a large pantheon of deities that may possess one's soul or being. The word 'loa' may be derived from the Yoruba word 'l'awo' meaning 'mystery', but according to Bourguignon its origin remains uncertain. To the devotees of vodun, the noon hour, when the sun casts no shadow, is a perilous time. A man without a shadow is a man without a soul and therefore vulnerable to possession by such spirits as 'loa'. To ward of these spirits, believers wear amulets and cast spells. African vodun evolved in Benin, formerly Dahomey, and was brought to Haiti with slavery during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Since both adults and microfilariae of the 'eye worm' Loa are diurnal, with maximum activity occurring at noon (when the West African would be most susceptible to spirit possession), and since West African vodun and the 'eye worm' share a common geographic origin, we have reached the tentative conclusion that one is probably the etymological source for the other. Whether the helminthological Loa predated the anthropological one remains a matter of conjecture"
Knowing something about the origin of the name and the way the parasite was discovered really helps to remember things better!
Looking forward to your next infectious TWIP,
Found the following reference for the origin of ‘Loa'. Still don't know what it means...
Love the show!
Laboratory Technician III
Georgia Perimeter College
Just to get you started <grin>
Drs. Racaniello and Despommier:
Did you see this about Toxoplasma gondii?
Dear Vincent and Dickson,
Here is a news piece very relevant for TWIP: The first congenital case of Chagas disease in the US. With a great video from Dr. Jim McKerrow.
Here's the link:
Thanks and keep up the great episodes!
Spencer MD PhD