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TWiM 72 Letters

Jim writes:


My name is Jim from Vancouver. I have no formal education in phraseology but am an enthusiastic follower of TWIP, TWIM & TWIV.

Recently I followed a program about yeast infections and the threat to public health they can pose.

My question is would it be possible to isolate the infectious yeast agents and brew a beer that would act as a vaccine against these infections. I understand that the brewing process kills the yeast so there would be no chance of contamination by the dead yeast which would be filtered out in any case. There were plans at one point to add vitamins to beer at one time to improve public health so the idea is not that unusual.

The question is Would this brew provide a heads up to the immune system that would prevent yeast infections from taking hold?

Also, would it be possible to have a TWIF - This Week in Fungus podcast as part of your audio library? There are so many other valid topics that fungus tends to be neglected.

Vince and Dickson, keep up the good work.

Best wishes,


Dallas writes:

Dear TWIMers

I was catching up on the podcasts and in TWIM 64 you discussed antibiotic resistance and connections between animals husbandry use and human disease issues. A recent article in Science “Distinguishable Epidemics of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in Different Hosts” < > seems to indicate a lack of transmission from animal to human populations.

A comment was then made that the same potential transmission problems would be true for aquaculture animals, where antibiotic resistance is also an issue. However, we need to keep in mind that there are very few pathogens for fish that are zoonotic (excluding helminthes that go between bears and wild salmon and seals and some fish) and most aquatic pathogens don’t grow at human body temperatures. Even more important, antibiotics almost triple the cost of fish feed and very few antibiotics are allowed and those are only for a few species. Unlike pigs and chickens, where adding antibiotics to the feed improves the growth rate and decreases feed consumption, adding antibiotic to fish feeds provides no growth effect and actually decreases the animals immune system (Rijkers, Teunissen et al. 1980) – not good for husbandry.

I had previously sent to TWIV the following graph showing that decrease in antibiotic use in Norway salmon production as vaccination solved the problems.

Notes: Use of antibiotics (yellow line) and amount of fish produced (blue columns). The numbers on the leftside are the tonnes of fish; the numbers on the right side are the tonnes of antibiotics.
Sources: NMD & Directorate for fisheries, as cited in Ministry of Fisheries (2002).

Activist organizations, including PEW, have had a multi million dollar “de-marketing” campaign against aquaculture in the US and have succeeded in framing the images in the society.

Other aquaculture myths that are sold to the public by environmental activists are caused by the mandated “color added” label on farmed salmon when you include astaxanthin in the diet, despite the fact that the chemical is identical to the astaxanthin that makes wild salmon pink. In addition, most people in the US believe that salmon and other carnivorous fish require fish meal in their diets and are thus depleting the ocean resources. We know enough about fish nutrition to create totally “vegan” diets for carnivorous marine fish which out-perform fish meal based control diets. However, the ingredients used in these vegan diets are also useful in chicken, and pig diets and fish meal is less desirable for these species (it makes chicken taste like fish and egg yokes grey). Economics pushes fish meal into fish diets, not biology and this whole fish meal issue is manufactured by activists for emotional appeal. If all aquaculture went away, the fish meal market would shift back to pigs, cows, chickens, dogs and cat feeds, just it was before aquaculture was a significant business. The international harvesting of fish meal has been constant for about 4 decades while aquaculture has grown by a factor of about 100 times.

One of my interest in listening to TWIV, TWIM, etc. is related to the observation that aquaculture systems are really controlled by the microbiological ecologies. It is like the complexity of the human gut interactions extended to all inside and outside surfaces. This makes discussions on TWIV about phages sticking their heads in mucus very fascinating to me. This effectively put the phage between its bacterial host and the host’s dinner on the animals surface. A very good location for an ambush hunter phage that has almost no mobility (Brownian motion).

I could go on about how aquaculture can solve the food (meat) problem for the coming 3 billion more people on this planet (better meat yield, better food conversion efficiency, when the animals doesn’t have to stand up or keep warm). The world wide growth rate of aquaculture (doubling in about 8 years) will mean that the talents of the TWIV, TWIM scientists will be required to understand how these microbiological ecologies really work and how to control the outcomes. We are seeing research dramatically increasing in every area relevant to trying to understand and control the microbiological ecologies of these complex systems ranging from probiotics, prebiotics, to specific phages for specific bacterial problems (aquatic phage therapy), but the sources of this research are primarily outside the US. As aquaculture takes over the meat production business with its higher conversion efficiencies, the need for scientists who understand these complex systems will increase. Many of the TWIM TWIV followers will have a bright future opportunity outside of conventional academic research.

Sorry about being a bit long winded. Love your programs.


Dallas E. Weaver, Ph.D.

Robin writes:

Acellular pertussis vaccine

Thanks for the amazing stuff. Shows how much we have yet to learn.

Cough is an endobronchial symptom. Even whooping cough can be temporarily ameliorated by anaesthetising the epithelium by the inhalation of nebulised lidocaine, the technique used prior to bronchoscopy.

My medical school microbiology is almost from the era of hunter-gatherers with their sticks and stones circa 1968.

If the volume of human knowledge is a sphere, the area of our ignorance (the "known unknowns" - h/t Donald Rumsfeld) is the surface of the sphere. The volume increases by the cube of the radius while the area increases by its square. It leads to the correct perception that our area of ignorance is decreasing relative to the volume of our knowledge. However what lies beyond the surface of the sphere (the "unknown unknowns") is beyond our ken: just as Flatlanders cannot grok what's beyond the dimensions of their world, we cannot grok those unknown unknowns.

"Expelling fomites" - Dr. Michael Schmidt

Fomites are objects (usually solid) in the environment which may (usually passively) harbour microorganisms.

Robert writes:

The germ enlarger. Breakthrough in microbiology, which I am surprised is not used today or discussed on TWIM.








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