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Saw this media release from the Australian Institute of Marine Science about researchers isolating a combination of probiotic bacteria to assist in the prevention of Vibrio infections of spiny lobsters in aquaculture and thought of TWiM.
Keep up the good work,
12 December 2012
Winning combination of bacteria found to combat deadly marine pathogen
Research conducted at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) has delivered promising results in combating Vibrio owensii - a bacterium that is responsible for mass mortalities of cultured ornate spiny lobster larvae.
The high commercial value of the ornate spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) means it has the potential to be an important product of the Australian aquaculture industry. However, nutritional deficits and bacterial disease during the long larval phase of the species makes captive rearing difficult.
Scientists from AIMS and the University of New England (UNE) have been able to isolate a large number of bacterial cultures – or probiotic candidates – from wild lobster larvae and their natural prey items, and from the lobster aquaculture system at AIMS in Townsville. After successive tests, they found that a combination of two probiotic bacteria, referred to as PP05 and PP107, provided the most effective protection against the pathogen Vibrio owensii, enhancing survival of the larvae by as much as 80 per cent.
AIMS Research Scientist, Dr Lone Høj, who led the project, said “Our work has uncovered a winning combination of “good” bacteria that appear to dramatically improve larval survival. In a further study we looked at how and why these two bacteria were so effective when working together against Vibrio owensii.”
UNE PhD student Evan Goulden said “This research highlights the value of identifying biocontrol agents that are able to intercept the infection cycle of a serious aquaculture pathogen, as such the study represents a milestone in proving the value of using probiotic mixes to prevent microbial diseases.”
“Disease management is critical in food production systems and this is particularly true for seafood produced in aquaculture systems. The development of alternatives to the antibiotics currently used in such systems is becoming a national priority in countries around the world” says AIMS Principal Research Scientist, Dr Mike Hall.
‘Identification of an Antagonistic Probiotic Combination Protecting Ornate Spiny Lobster (Panulirus ornatus) Larvae against Vibrio owensii Infection’ is published in PLOS One: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039667
‘Probiont niche specialization contributes to additive protection against Vibrio owensii in spiny lobster larvae’ is published in Environmental Microbiology Reports:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1758-2229.12007/abstract
The authors are Evan Goulden (AIMS/UNE), Mike Hall (AIMS), Lily Pereg (UNE), Brett Baillie (AIMS), and Lone Høj (AIMS).
Dear TWiM team,
Since the topic of patent law came up on episode 48 I wanted to add my two cents. Six months ago, I switched to a career in patent law after 12 years as a bench Virologist. I have found this job to be very challenging and rewarding, and I'm currently experiencing a rather steep learning curve. However, the reason I'm writing is because I did want to mention that one does not have to be a lawyer, or even plan to go to law school to practice patent law. Many firms are willing to hire PhDs with no prior experience in patent law as science advisors or patent agents and train them on the job. The reason they're willing to do that, is because of their extensive background in science, which is imperative in this particular legal field. In our firm, all of our six science advisors have PhDs, and three of our five attorneys do as well. Although learning the law is pretty difficult, in my opinion, it is much easier to learn the law on the job than it would be to learn the science, and I have tremendous respect for the two attorneys in our firm who do not have PhDs, because they seem to be so well versed in the science as well. I recently asked one of our partners (who has a PhD) how much of what he learned in law school he has actually applied to this particular job, and he said “zero”! On the other hand, attorneys do make a lot more money, and there are certain things that they can do that a patent agent can't do, but my point is that a PhD is more than enough to have a rewarding career in patent law. Personally, I have absolutely no desire to go to law school!
Thanks again for continuing to provide so many different stimulating and thought-provoking topics.
Post-Sandy seems an appropriate time for a TWIM devoted to mold since the storm generated many opportunities to deal with it? I'm also battling it in my ventilation ducts to the extent that we replaced all the supply lines beneath the house and some of the returns in the attic, and installed an electrostatic filter upstream from a HEPA-type filter, plus a UV light by the heating/cooling coils. Over the years I've inspected the ductwork for integrity and cleanliness and just didn't think we had conditions that allowed mold growth until we found 7 of 23 supply lines each of which that looked inside like they were spray-painted with black primer over a good many feet. Meanwhile outside we've been unable to prevent black mildew from growing in playing-card patches on treated wood coated with mildewicide-infused stain and exposed to sunlight about eight hours a day.
I bought five mold collection kits containing petri dishes and growth medium just before detecting the seven register lines. At first they seemed a good idea to apply now and perhaps in the spring or summer, but then I found this site with considerable mold information that seems reputable. My interpretation of what the site says is that conditions and materials contributing to mold must be removed to fix problem. While removing bad ductwork helps I don't think it corrects the condition problem(s). The site says sprays and chemicals don't work! And sampling with my kits followed by lab work to identify mold types won't tell if harmful mold is at levels requiring action. In addition, unless you use laboratory grade filtration, it won't reduce the presence of mold to livable levels, and UV radiation is only good directly under the light, not particulates flying by. Electrostatic filters apparently only remove a small amount of mold-related material as do good filters, but not all and probably not enough for sensitive people, plus they work best if the ventilation fan runs continuously. Much harmful mold material is too heavy to get sucked into any ventilation system, anyway, and is only removed by vacuuming often, mopping and washing fabrics. Finally, only an expensive, trained environmental specialist can do a good evaluation, prescribe corrective action and determine if that action has been effective. This site shows we have just one such specialist in my state,Virginia, about 300 miles away.
Do you folks agree our best approach would be to napalm the house and replace it with a stainless steel cube, or wear environmental protection suits, or move to who-knows-where....? Of course the guys doing all the ventilation work used no respiration protection, but then they were all in their 20's and 30's versus our 70's.
So what's going on with mold nowadays, anyway? Is there more of it? I've no problem understanding why you need to remove wet and moldy plasterboard and carpeting, but have seen home shows where mildew-stained woodwork behind the wallboard is sprayed with something which they implied would fix the problem. You're the only really reliable source of complete and competent knowledge on the topic, so many of your listeners should appreciate your comments.
When do we get to hear the results of Michael's experiments and interventions with copper and microbes?. The suspense is killing me, or did I miss it? Please continue your marvelous podcasts.