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Endogenous RNA virus inhibits Borna disease virus replication

09/02/2014
Animal genomes are known to contain captured retroviruses, typically referred to as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Many of these elements are still transcribed and are known to be involved in both beneficial functions in animal biology, such as placenta formation, and not-so beneficial functions such as certain auto-immune diseases as ...

Quorum sensing genes discovered in a bacteriophage genome?

01/31/2014
Recently, the discovery that certain bacteriophage encode bacterial gene silencing systems (CRISPR) that can counteract host defense systems demonstrated how mind boggling the evolutionary pathways between phage and bacterial host actually are. In this publication, these relationships are extended further with the discovery of a bacteriophage that encodes genes ...

Previously discovered hepatitis-associated Parvovirus-Circovirus Hybrid Presumed Laboratory Contaminant

09/12/2013
Metagenomics has been responsible for the discovery of various novel and clinically relevant human and environmental microorganisms. However, great care must be taken with the conclusions each group makes concerning whether a novel microorganism is associated with any given disease or phenotype. Previously, a hybrid DNA virus in Chinese patients ...

Blurring the line between enveloped and non-enveloped viruses: a non-enveloped virus that envelopes itself

04/17/2013
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is classified as a non-enveloped Picornavirus. That may have to change, or at least be more specific. Via electron microscopy, this team found a certain percentage of these viruses were enveloped in exosome-sized particles. Up to 4 virions were found inside these membrane enveloped vesicles. In ...

Influenza virus exists as a swarm of cooperative inter-dependent viruses

03/02/2013
The influenza virus genome consists of eight negative sense RNA segments. The segmentation allows efficient genetic exchange among influenza viruses co-infecting the same cell. But this strategy has its costs, namely, that each virion has to ensure that all eight segments are specifically packaged for a productive infection. ...

Bacteriophage Hijacks Bacterial RNA-interference Mechanism

03/01/2013
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system is a bacterial RNA interference-like system which captures short fragments of DNA from plasmids, phage, and other nucleic acid parasites. After being expressed, these molecules then serve as a surveillance system where base pairing to homologous invading phages/plasmids subsequently leads ...

Bacteriophages Display 'Infectious Altruism' through Antitoxin Mimicry and Horizontal Transfer

01/23/2013
A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein 'poison' and a corresponding 'antidote'. There are 3 types of these systems: Type I toxin-antitoxin systems rely on the base-pairing of complementary antitoxin RNA with the toxin's mRNA, Type 2 ...

Cooperation Amongst Distinct RNA Virus Genomes Enhance Syncytium Formation (Cell fusion)

01/22/2013
Measles virions have two envelope glycoproteins, a receptor binding hemagluttinin (H) and a fusion protein (F). When H binds to its cellular receptor, it is thought that the F protein undergoes conformational changes that assist in virus-cell fusion as well as cell-to-cell fusion. The ladder also called syncytium ...

New Mobile Genetic Element in Giant Viruses: Transpovirons

10/19/2012
Previously, this group identified a new virophage, Sputnik 2, in the contact lens fluid of a patient with keratitis. This paper however, found that this Sputnik 2 could integrate into its viral host's genome (Lentille virus). Upon massive SOLiD genome sequencing investigating its integration, they then found a ...

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