The launch of new antibiotics in the 1980s led many in the scientific field to believe that fight against bacteria had been won. Since then, at least one group of bacteria known as Gram-negatives (which includes pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired pneumonia and bloodstream infections as well as E. coli and Salmonella have developed a variety of mechanisms that make them multi-drug resistant.The result is that it is now commonplace to encounter gram-negative infections susceptible only to one drug: colistin, an antibiotic all but abandoned in the 1970s and 1980s due to toxic side-effects.Participants will discuss how antibiotic-resistant gram-negatives are on the rise in newly industrialized countries, the threat they pose to the antibiotic revolution of the 20th century and one country's nationwide intervention to control an antibiotic-resistant outbreak in healthcare facilities.
David Livermore, PhD, HPA Microbiol. Services Colindale, London, United Kingdom
Mitchell Schwaber, MD, Israel Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv, Israel