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I do like 'snippets' you had on #91. It's 44F and cloudy here in Seattle. Oops, wrong podcast! :-)
Maybe we need to rethink the role of viruses. Maybe all viruses are part of our immune system. Maybe viruses are trying to heal the damage of other cofactors and are not the actual cause of the illness. Consider how it has been described that sperm acts a like a virus. What if the virus works like sperm to give birth to new cells to replace old cells when there is severve damage to a cell. Consider the possibilities of being able to heal somebody with a so called viral disease if you're not trying to destroy the virus but trying to resolve the other cofactors that are causing the illness. I am interested in researching this theory further to see if it has any merit. Does anyone else have any thoughts on this theory of viruses being part of our immune systen?
Can you please post a link to the paper about virus transmission via one door knob in an office building? Thanks!
Enjoyed this interview! Am learning about microbiology more than ever, and it helps to see this aspect of the field. Great questions and answers.
I support this cause!
Sorry, John, we won't be at ASP this year.
Thanks for another great episode. Will you be at ASP in New Orleans this year? If so, will you do a "live" podcast from there?
The substance in pepper that Elio mentioned is discussed at this link: http://www.leafscience.com/2013/11/12/beta-caryophyllene-dietary-cannabinoid-make-synthetics-irrelevant/ Great show, too.
Dear Vincent, Elio, and Michael: It's good to hear you all together---truly a type of "quorum sensing" phenomenon of Overwhelming Microbial Goodness ("OMG"), which I have come to expect from TWiM. As always, a wonderful and informative show. Elio was kind enough to mention my "microbiology" inspired buttons. I make the buttons and T-shirts for my microbiology classes each year, as part of my propaganda program to promote Microbial Supremacy. Anyway, Elio likes a old one from years ago. Here is what he was discussing: http://www.cafepress.com/microbesrule/7034973 I am reminded of Thomas Miller's great maxim: "All organisms are nothing but a bag of other organisms walking around." Organelles are just the evolutionary end product of lazy microbes, perhaps! Dr. Miller, by the way, studies using bacterial symbionts of insects as a form of pest control---something called paratransgenic control. A similar approach is being used to reduce dengue fever transmission by mosquitoes. So the study of unusual symbionts of aphids could be useful in unexpected ways. Thanks again for your great show. Best wishes, and I hope to see you at ASM in Boston. -Mark Martin
thanks for sharing this great info
Thanks for the explanation, Katja! Glad you enjoyed our telling of your story.
Thank you for the great podcast! You've explained our story very well and it was funny to listen to it. I didn't know that "Speak friend and enter" is from lord of the rings! I just wanted to explain the name CYCLOPS because this was a question mark in the podcast. This is a link to Yano et al. 2008 where they describe the cyclops mutant phenotype in fig. 1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2629324/ In the WT the fluorescently labeled rhizobia enter the root by the formation of an infection thread. In the cyclops mutant, the root hair curls around the bacteria but further infection is impaired. And because this looks like an eye of an cyclops, the mutant derived its name from :-)
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Is there any accounts of people with lower amounts of melanin in their skin being more susceptible to radiation than someone with darker skin?
Tarwin Stroh-Spijer: "Talking of melanin as being a left over from a time when there was more radiation seems weird to me. It protects us from UV radiation in our skin too!" — Precisely, UV radiation reaching the Earth surface used to be much stronger when the O2 concentration in the atmosphere was lower and the ozone layer, thinner or non-existant.
80 grams is 2.8 ounces, not 3 pounds. Below 0.2 pounds. Still quite a bit of mushroom but not insane. Talking of melanin as being a left over from a time when there was more radiation seems weird to me. It protects us from UV radiation in our skin too!
I literally just saw hundreds of cases of Ascaris Lumbricoides when I was in South America. Crazy stuff.
That's exciting. Coursera is a good site.
Hi again. I really like this podcast. I just came home from Thailand with a stomach bug that everyone around me (none of which are trained medical professionals of course) believes is giardia, so of course I listened to that episode first. Anyway, as awesome and inclusive as this episode was in terms of defining and classifying parasites no plant parasites were mentioned! Of course I know that this is primarily a medical podcast, but it would've been neat to hear a sentence or 2 about the fact that plants can also act as parasites (e.g. the hemiparasitic genus Pedicularis). I'm grateful for this free entry into the world of parasites, thanks so much.
Great episode, that was interesting. +1 for an episode about Archea.
hello, I apologize for responding so late, just heard the show today. With Copper being a rather expen$ive commodity, I'm sure many facilities would find it hard to replace a lot of the stainless steel surfaces in hospitals. Did the scientist conducting these experiments consider collaborations with or consult metallurgist, to maybe test or determine a significant amount of copper in a sort of conglomerate metal?
Really interisting episode. Directly baught the book from Amazon.
Thank you guys! =)
Sorry about the link error, Liesbeth it's fixed now.
Liesbeth, he just put the wrong link above. You can find a link to ep. 42's MP3 file in the RSS feed: http://feeds.feedburner.com/parasitism
Dear Vince, I believe you uploaded TWiP #41 instead of #42!! (yeah, I had to settle on music today...) Cheers, Liz.-
Great discussion. One note: the link for the West Nile Story kindle book does not work.
I agree, Liesbeth! Some day!
I can't believe anyone would rate this performance other than 5 stars. Whether or not you like the music, you have to give 8 scientists a lot of credit for getting up in front of a crowd and performing - not giving a talk but playing music.
TVIPs should always have explanatory videos! =)
In regards to the comments concerning how human/Neandertal contact may have affect each species, this article which appeared in Science Magazine: The Shaping of Modern Human Immune Systems by Multiregional Admixture with Archaic Humans, Vol 334 7 October 2011, suggests that humans benefitted greatly. Apparently, we picked up alleles that strengthened our immune system. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6052/89.abstract?sid=63979397-4ff4-4778-b1be-3c595c0506f1
This was a wonderful episode! Emilio's background information about E. hux and diatoms etc was vital to my understanding of the episode, and not only that, I was filled with wonder and amazement at the thought that blooms of these tiny creatures are visible from space. And that they can affect climate! Thank you for blowing my mind today!
It's not central to the podcast, but the cornea is much much thicker than just 2 cells. The cornea's thickness is around 570 μm, the epithelial layer on the surface is about 50μm (7+ cell layers). If I remember correctly it is the layer of collagen under the epithelial layer that when damaged causes a lot of the neovascularization and scarring associated with infections and mechanical damage, but that's remembering a primer from quite a long time ago.
That was great thank you
Thanks for the great episode.. I just want to sat that IgA molecule could not activate the complement system (in contrast to IgM and IgG) hence the complement system does not work efficiently in the lumen of the gut although there is little secretory IgM and IgG.
Thank you very much
Jim things have moved on considerably since the documentary was made. The science is still evolving to support the views of ILADS and contradict the narrow views of the IDSA which currently dictates treatment World wide. Last year the institute of Medicine held a Workshop still available on their website, about Lyme disease and other tick borne illnesses- they found significant gaps remain in the science, so far too soon to be dictating restricted guidelines as per iDSA. Possibly the most significant research was that by Embers, Barthold et al http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0029914 Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Rhesus Macaques following Antibiotic Treatment of Disseminated Infection Don't remember seeing this much on the internet yet although it was published 11th January 2012
The acronym "CPC" which you mentioned in the first few minutes of the podcast is for "Clinico-Pathologic Conference."
TWiP #33 is unusually popular - I wonder why?
I'd like to hear you both talk about demodex folliculorum, also known as the bug that lives in your eyelash follicles.
This was beautiful and very thought-provoking. Thanks for the share this letters.
Tim So much is known about Borrelia but ignored lectures by Microbiologist Tom Grier can be found on my blog but too long to post here. He explains reasons why Microbiologists are not finding Borrelia by modern techniques and also talks about work done by Miklossy and Paschner finding Lyme on the brain (part 4 of his lectures) In Paschner's mouse model 20 years ago the strain injected in the tail of the mouse had morphed within 4 weeks and was different from what was harvested from the brain of the mouse.
This site, http://ascr-discovery.science.doe.gov/synchronized/magellan1.shtml , discusses the role the US Department of Energy had in this research.
Sweet. You get to be in the new studio today!...sort of;) Have a great episode!
So many links! i am loving it! Its going to take me a week to go through all of these. San Francisco Spa San Francisco Dentist
It's a shame I couldn't stay to the end of the show, there were more talks starting at 3pm! I'm sure we'll meet some other time. Cheers!
Hello Twisted Bacteria - you should have come up afterwards and said hello. Would have loved to meet you. Thanks for coming - Vincent.
I was among the 'crowd' in the room watching the show at the ASM meeting. Listening to the podcast is great, but actually seeing how they do it is even better! Keep the good work!
I am always curious about why someone would vote a TWiV episode only one star. If you have a specific problem with the episode, please leave a comment so that we can improve it in future episodes.
@Chris, Fixed! I unsubscribed in iTunes, deleted the previous downloaded episode and then resubscribed. Thanks
@Felix - Okay, a new version has been uploaded to our content delivery network. I tested it out in iTunes and it works for me (so did the last one BTW). Please let me know if you have any issues with it. Also, you should unsubscribe to TWiP and then re-subscribe to download the new version.
It will happen this evening.
A new version of this file be uploaded shortly. I'll report back here when it's complete.
The same truncated version has also downloaded through iTunes!
The MP3 doesn't seem to download correctly - only 12.2MB download (26 minutes) whereas site says size it is 32MB.
Good to hear that. We'll have her back for a general TWiV discussion.
Michelle Ozbun was great to listen to. I think she's worthy of being TWiV's 5th wheel :)
Hello, contact Vincent Racaniello here about the use of images that have been posted in the TWiP posts. If you use the search function on this site you will be able to find images with their specific copyright designations. In most cases (with the exception of images in the public domain) you should contact the author of the image for their usage in a book since it is ultimately for commercial purposes.
thanks for this great podcast there are not many chance to hear about parasites I'm currently writing a book about parasites in korea and I wonder if I could use some of the images in this site for my book thank you very much
I did NOT know that Florida was the second most productive cattle state in the union. When I heard I nearly fell off my bike.
have you ever looked into Giardia and it's links with cancer ?, as i may have some thing that could interest you.
Great show!
When you were talking about acid hydrolase it reminded me of an old Saturday Night Live Sketch called "Josh Acid" starring Mel Gibson. So I had to draw a quick cartoon: http://i.imgur.com/tEbin.jpg
Everybody its Vincent Rakenalo(sorry if i mispelled) This is twiv your weekly dose of virology. I love listening to your podcast very much and love to thank for this. Dont we have podocats on bacteria...like twiv, twip? Thank you Ish,EVEREST
The XMRV virus is undoubtedly implicated in chronic fatigue. Its proteins are similar to those of the mitochondrial respiration and energy generating system, and antibodies to the virus will also target these important human proteins. Even if the virus has been successfully eliminated, antibodies will continue to encounter the human homologues, driving an autoimmune response that effectively knocks out the mitochondrial energy generating system, and makes you tired and fatigued.
This has been rejected by Nature, Science, and the European Journal of Immunology where, in all cases, it didn't even make it past the editors !
Some of the proteins that make up the XMRV virus closely ressemble human proteins that are involved in mitochondrial respiration and energy generation and they are also similar to proteins involved in prostate cancer.The viral proteins are immunogenic, and antibodies against the virus will also target the similar human proteins. Even if the immune system deals with and eliminates the virus, these antibodies will continue meeting the human proteins, sustaining an autoimmune response that keeps on targeting the energy and cancer related areas. This may explain the controversy over the presence and absence of XMRV in different studies. The virus doesn't need to be there, it just needs to have been there.
We answered this in TWiP 9. According to Dickson: none.
I'm curious, if a tiger eats a human, what kind of tapeworm would the tiger get?
Miso, thanks for your comments. Glad you liked this slightly different episode. We'll aim to do the same with TWiV. As for TWiB - stay tuned; it's in the planning stages.
Anecdote shows like this one add a human spin on the study of parasite and parasitism. I really enjoyed this week's show and would love to hear shows like this on a weekly basis. (I'd like to hear some TWiVs that are in the same vein as well.) On a slightly unrelated I would also subscribe to a TWiB if it became available. Though I have no educational experience in the field of microbiology outside of what I have learned through the internet and in my high school biology courses I find your shows completely irresistible. Your podcasts make me want to shift my undergraduate program from my generic liberal arts degree to hard science.
Finally got to sit down and listen to this one I loved it. I listen to a lot (and I mean a lot) of science podcasts and I have to say that TWiP is my new favorite. Yay tapeworms! Hopefully the next one is coming sooner, rather than later???
Thanks Vincent for another interesting interview. If you are reading this and would like to know the latest on XMRV research please listen to this well rounded conversation on the topic. Stephen Goff does a great job on discussing the potential links between XMRV, prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome.
"This study did not duplicate the rigorous scientific techniques used by WPI, the National Cancer Institute and the Cleveland Clinic, therefore it cannot be considered a replication study nor can the results claim to be anything other than a failure not just to detect XMRV, but also a failure to suggest meaningful results." http://www.wpinstitute.org/news/docs/WPI_Erlwein_010610.pdf
FYI - You need a paid subscription to Science to access this article.
Thank you for the Scott Hammer interview. This was really enlightening in regards to the potential impact of the Thai HIV clinical trial success.
Not being an expert in respirators, are there any options other than the N95 studied that offer protection against influenza? Or, in other words, what should a discerning consumer look for in a protective "surgical type" mask if they want to protect themselves from exposure or from exposing others?(I assume the masks work both ways?)
Thanks for the kind words and the plug. I would love it if your listeners started submitting stories for TWiV via MicrobeWorld by tagging the article with TWiV.
Open access debate was great. So important to make all that amazing content available to the people who could really use it but are least likely to afford it...students. Although I do realize that it's difficult because these journals are very expensive to produce so it's not as much of a no-brainer as it appears on the surface. That said, "open" is the future of media. Ad models/sponsorship will need to be embraced strongly.
Vincent and Allen, I loved the discussion on open access and the email's were fantastic. I think the one listener is correct in that you truly do walk the fine line between layman and researcher and some how manage to keep all interested and involved.
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