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Peter Mitchell proposes the chemiosmotic theory, in which a molecular process is coupled to the transport of protons across a biological membrane. He argues that this principle explains ATP synthesis, solute accumulations or expulsions, and cell movement (flagellar rotation). Mitchell is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1978.
Peter Mitchell and the Chemiosmotic Theory, ASM News 63, 1997. p.13 [pdf]