From the discovery of the first Neanderthal skull in a Belgian cave in 1826, a bone of contention among Homo sapiens has been the extent of our relationship to Homo neanderthalis, who disappeared from the fossil record ~30,000 years ago. Like scrappy cousins we'd rather not claim, we've attempted to distance ourselves and establish our clear superiority, leading at times to suspect interpretations of data. For example, Neanderthal cranial capacity was larger than ours by about 25% (1500-1800 cc, compared to 1300-1500 cc for modern humans). To an unbiased observer, this feature could imply greater intelligence among Neanderthals. However, we have often chosen to depict Neanderthals as grunting brutes whose large heads evolved to allow frequent head-butting, as well as protection from blows from each others' clubs. But history is written by the winners, and as long as bones couldn't talk, we were free to impose upon them our preferred narrative.
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