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How To Rid The Developing World Of Deadly Bacteria? Steam

By making water boil at much lower temperatures, scientists are using steam generated by the sun as a way sanitize things in places where unclean conditions often lead to disease and death.

Up to 2.5 billion people lack access to proper sanitation. They use "flying toilets" to dispose of excrement, do without bathrooms for hand-washing, and play roulette with unclean medical and dental equipment. We’ve discussed a lot of toilet solutions here, including this one and this one. But waste collection is only half the battle: you still need a way to deal with the material after the fact--a way of killing bacteria before it leeches into the water supply, and spreads disease. Another 2.1 billion people use sanitation systems that don’t dispose of waste safely.

Researchers at Rice University have been working on what could be a wide-ranging remedy: solar steam. By developing an efficient way of creating steam from sunlight, they hope to distribute cleansing technology more widely, particularly to places beyond the electricity grid. The key is special heat-absorbing nano-particles that they place in water. When the sun shines, the particles take in up to 90% of the sun’s energy, producing steam that can be piped off and used in different ways. The system, which has overall efficiency of about 24%, is far more efficient that solar panels, which convert only about 15% of energy when they generate electricity.

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