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Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes among gram negative bacteria in sewage and lake water and influence of some physico-chemical parameters of water on conjugation process

Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes among gram negative bacteria in sewage and lake water and easy access of these
bacteria to the community are major environmental and public health concern. The aim of this study was to determine transfer of the
antimicrobial resistance genes from resistant to susceptible gram negative bacteria in the sewage and lake water by conjugation process
and to determine the influence of some physico-chemical parameters of sewage and lake water on the transfer of these resistance genes.
For this reason, we isolated 20 liter of each sewage and lake water from coconut area within university campus and Lingambudi lake
respectively in Mysore city, India, during monsoon season and studied different physical parameters of the water samples like pH,
temperature, conductivity, turbidity and color as well as chemical parameters like BOD, COD, field DO and total chloride ion. The gram
negative bacteria were isolated and identified from the above water samples using microbiological and biochemical methods and their
sensitivity to different antibiotics was determined by disc diffusion break point assay. Conjugation between two multiple antibiotic resistant
isolates Pseudomonas aeuginosa and E.coli as donor and E.coli Rif r (sensitive to antibiotics) as recipient were carried out in 5ml sterile
sewage and lake water. All isolates were resistant to Am, moderately resistant to Te and E, while majority were sensitive to Cip, Gm and
CAZ antibiotics. Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes by conjugation process revealed transfer of Gm, Te and E resistant
genes from Ps. aeruginosa to E.coli Rif r recipient with mean frequency of ± 2.3 x 10 -4 in sewage and ± 2.6 x 10 -6 in lake water
respectively. Frequency of conjugation in sewage was two fold more as compared to lake water (p

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