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Astrobiology research: Life possible on extrasolar moons

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In their search for habitable worlds, astronomers have started to consider exomoons, or those likely orbiting planets outside the solar system. In a new study, a pair of researchers has found that exomoons are just as likely to support life as exoplanets.

The research, conducted by René Heller of Germany's Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam and Rory Barnes of the University of Washington and the NASA Astrobiology Institute, will appear in the January issue of Astrobiology.

About 850 extrasolar planets—planets outside the solar system—are known, and most of them are sterile gas giants, similar to Jupiter. Only a few have a solid surface and orbit their host stars in the habitable zone, the circumstellar belt at the right distance to potentially allow liquid surface water and a benign environment.

Heller and Barnes tackled the theoretical question whether such planets could host habitable moons. No such exomoons have yet been discovered but there's no reason to assume they don't exist.

The climatic conditions expected on extrasolar moons will likely differ from those on extrasolar planets because moons are typically tidally locked to their planet. Thus, similar to the Earth's moon, one hemisphere permanently faces the planet. Beyond that moons have two sources of light—that from the star and the planet they orbit—and are subject to eclipses that could significantly alter their climates, reducing stellar illumination. "An observer standing on the surface of such an exomoon would experience day and night in a totally different way than we do on Earth." explained Heller. "For instance stellar eclipses could lead to sudden total darkness at noon."
 
 

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