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TWiM 67 Letters

Jim writes:

Vincent,

The last 10 minutes or so of the Mike Tech Show podcast 447 covers Mike's music collection of some 30K tracks and he may have everything Frank ever did. He is linked to the Apple music system and your daughter might be able see what he has, etc. Just a thought. Plus he discusses some useful apps she/you might use, if not already using them.

Jim
Smithfield, VA

Jim writes:

This link from quora asked the question in the subject and includes many comments I found interesting. Your listeners might be interested?

Jim
Smithfield, VA

Kehaulani writes:

Aloha TWIMsters;
I must start by saying that I love your podcasts and have been listening since TWIV day 1 (really) and thank you so much for providing such and informative and entertaining discussion on the issues related to microbes. I just saw this article, A Case Study of Gut Fermentation Syndrome (Auto-Brewery) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the Causative Organism, referred to in the news and had to send it to you for comment. The authors conclude with a message to health care workers that treat patients for alcohol intoxication that claim to not have been drinking and how this condition can have serious social costs if misdiagnosed. I wonder if this condition is more prevalent than we realize due to the increase in a diets high in sugar and carbohydrates as well as the use of antibiotics that disrupt the gut biome, which allows the overgrowth of this commensal yeast. I guess it gives new meaning to being addicted to carbs :)

B. Cordell and J. McCarthy, "A Case Study of Gut Fermentation Syndrome (Auto-Brewery) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the Causative Organism," International Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 309-312. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.47054.

Ralf writes:

Hello TWIM,
the brain microbiome paper you discussed seems to have been largely ignored by the press. However, Mark Pallen sent you an open reply where he was dismissive of the claims of the paper, comparing it to elusive XMRV and arsenic life. He also says effectively the authors didn't do their homework.

If you can't find his letter in your mail here is the link:
http://blogs.warwick.ac.uk/microbialunderground/entry/the_brain_microbiome/

I am writing because I strongly disagree with Pallen's opinion and would like to see your opinon on Pallen's letter. Indeed, I think the authors went to great lengths to get the result using different methods. And they have cultured the critters, read the part where they inoculated the mice with heated and non-heated brain tissue.The only way this could not quite be what it seems is that the bacteria are not in full bloom but dormant, like M. tuberculosis sleeping in macrophages. Low transcriptional activity they have found actually supports this hypothesis.

I'm a former biocurator who only did a bit of library work on M. tuberculosis, so that paper rang a bell with me.

Many thanks for your work and for bringing up that paper which probably has sparked some frantic activity by now I'd guess...

Regards, (and check the citation below)
--
Ce sont les microbes, qui auront le dernier mot. (Pasteur)

Tim writes:

Dear Vincent & Michael,

In TWIM 64 the episode on URI & UTI you and the guests get on the subject of agriculture and antibiotic resistance in microbes around 56 minutes into the video. Michael mentioned that manure is suppose to be heated before application to fields and indicated its not and if was it wouldn't be sufficient to destroy DNA which I'm assuming he meant plasmids containing resistance genes. I know it wasn't the focus of the show and time didn't need to be devoted to fully discussing the roles of animal agriculture and manure in microbial resistance but I feel there may be some clarification needed. Manure lagoons were discussed in which case we are talking liquid manure and not something you'd apply to land growing crops for human consumption. I'm sure it's legal in the case of a sufficient waiting period from application to planting although I'm not very versed in the exact specifications as I'm a dairy farmer not a vegetable grower. By heating I think Michael was referring to composting of manure. This is a process that in the case of organic farming and I'd assume conventional as well is supposed to be carried out with strict controls involving temperature measurements and records along with scheduled aeration and the like to make a product allowed for use in human consumption crops. There is a lot of interesting research out there on prevalence of antibiotic resistant genes on farms, in manure, in soils on farms, and comparisons of different operations. This could be a possible future episode for you in an area you usually only dabble in on occasion, that being agriculture. Here are some links to papers I could find on the subject I've found interesting:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412002000843

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ac015588m

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003807170800062X

I could go on for hours about this subject and its implications for agriculture and society as a whole but I need to get to the farm milking. Have a great day.

Tim Zweber
Zweber Farms
www.zweberfarms.com

Kehaulani writes:

Aloha TWIMsters,

Just wanted to thank you for all the work you do bringing the world of microbes to the masses ;)

As a student in Microbiology, I listen to all the TWIx podcasts and enjoy them all :) Last year, I wrote a paper on the gut microbiome and came across a paper that might identify a causal agent in obesity (citation below). I am not sure why it did not get the attention (both media and scientific) that the paper you discussed this week since it seemed to be similar in focus. It seems that inflammation plays an important part in obesity and the presence of the bacterial toxin might be the culprit. The researchers concluded that endotoxin-induced inflammation might have a pivotal role in obesity (as induced by the bacteria E. cloacae strain B29). The man in this study lost weight when switched to a whole grain diet with probiotics and the bacterial strain was undetected. I wonder if the paper you presented obtained a similar result in mice fed a low fat diet where the gut microbiome contained a healthy diversity. There have been many studies that show a diet high in fat and sugar contributes to obesity, but could it also maintain an unhealthy gut microbe that could produce an endotoxin that stimulates inflammation? In the study you mentioned that the diet was important in maintaining a healthy gut diversity. I guess this means that the use of any prebiotic for weight loss would be meaningless if not accompanied by a low fat diet? How does this explain those that are thin and eat an unhealthy / fast food diet? I know this is a complex issue but I can't help but think of the effect of an endotoxin producer and resulting inflammation as a likely culprit in obesity. I feel for those that have been frustrated by the "calories in = calories out" statement .. these studies show that it is not that simple.

Mahalo,
Kehaulani

Na Fei, Liping Zhao, 2013. An opportunistic pathogen isolated from the gut of an obese human causes obesity in germfree mice. ISME J. 2013 April; 7(4): 880ā€“884. Published online 2012 December 13. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2012.153

 

 

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