Great HAI work! I'm not through it yet. I want to question, though, whether fomites are really important in influenza transmission. I don't think so.
Wink Weinberg (ID)
[flu can transmit by fomites in guinea pigs: http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/199/6/858.full ]
I'm a second year microbiology undergraduate and I very much enjoy all of your podcasts; they are a great pleasure to listen and I wait for the new ones every week.
Since the last episode was all about copper I would thought it would be appropriate to point out this paper published in Nature in 1984- "Why whip egg whites in copper bowls?".
Who would have thought that a paper about copper bowls and cooking could've been published in Nature :)
I also think that this paper could be shortly discussed one one of the podcast: traditional mutational study but seems quite perspective- what do you think?
"Identification of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-2 Type III Secretion System Effectors Involved in Intramacrophage Replication of S. enterica Serovar Typhimurium: Implications for Rational Vaccine Design"
Thanks again for your podcasts and keep them coming!
I formerly developed a oxygen radical (not ozone) surgical instrument sterilizer so have dealt with the difficulties of disinfection and HSAs. Successfully sold to Stryker Instruments.
You mention the problem of economically obtaining copper hardware due to the pervasive use of plastic. If you think about our common household plumbing fixtures, it is clear that plastic can be plated with many metals and shipped around the world by air.
Plastic plumbing fixtures are typically plated with electroless copper followed by nickel then chromium. Air shipment is not an issue so your former plating vendor simply did not have the technique/knowledge to give you a sturdy uncontaminated injection molded part. I was involved on the development of many of these processes in the 70s. Rhom & Haas is still a major supplier of plating solutions and methods.
Similarly, any metal part can be easily plated in whole or in part with copper or copper alloys by the OEM. A quick swipe with ammonia will remove finger oils which could allow bacterial film growth and will expose fresh copper surface.
Despite all this antimicrobial furor, I look forward to the "omic" studies identifying how many HSAs are from the environment vs. the patient. Microbiome studies seem to be showing that microbial diversity balance rather than eradication is often the key mechanism of maintaining health.
Thanks to all you TWIV, TWIP & TWIMmers for creating and maintaining one of the most educational, accessible and plain old FUN scientific forums ever!
I was amazed to see note 13 in the caption for this article out of Apr/May 2013 AARP magazine about use of copper alloys on frequently touched surfaces. Copy of that page attached as a PDF.
I love your show, especially the recent episode about the use of copper in hospitals.
I am a nursing student at University of Nevada, Las Vegas and I am always cleaning patient bed rails and call lights. Patient hands are not the only thing that comes in contact with bed rails. The rail is also frequently used by nurses to temporarily hang pieces of tape while inserting an IV or changing a dressing. The tape, with all its germs attached, is removed from the bed rail and taped onto the patient's skin in close proximity to an open wound.
A future study might include the pathogens transmitted by stethescopes. People are pretty good about washing their hands, but I never see anyone cleaning their stethescope. It is my very unscientific, empiric observation that the stethescope is one of the biggest fomites in any hospital. I have seen copper writing pens for sale, but I am not aware of anyone who makes a copper coated stethescope.
Another possible fomite is employee badges, they come in contact with our patients when we lean over them (I stuff mine in my pocket so it does not contact the patient.)