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TWiM 34 Letters

Peter writes:

Dear TWiM Team

I see that some action is now being taken in America against the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics as livestock growth promoters:



Having read the FDA Press Announcement I think that that the N.Y. Times article may be misleadingly optimistic, I feel that this is probably too little and too late.

The practise of using antibiotics as growth promoters was stopped in Sweden in 1986 the UK in 1988 and in Europe by 2005, without significant adverse effects on the meat industry.
As I see it the only reason this practise persists in America is the lobbying by the livestock industry against the scientific consensus.

Your views please doctors.


Article about how use of AGP's was phased out in the Danish pork industry:


Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Agriculture: History and Mode of Action:


History of the Use of Antibiotic as Growth Promoters in European Poultry Feeds:


Sergio writes:

I have a question for Michael Schmidt. While doing my research on R. solanacearum, I read an old paper where they mentioned that Pseudomonads were able to internalize copper and therefore detoxify a copper rich liquid medium, I have observed this myself with the R. solanacearum strain I was working with, but since Michael is the copper expert in TWIM, I would like to know if there is some more new information about this phenomenon. It is of my interest beyond my doctoral thesis because copper is one of the few fungicides allowed to be used in organic farming. Therefore, this phenomenon deserves more attention from organic farmers, I think.


Ph.D. in Biocontrol Science Electronic Cigarette
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
United Graduate School of Agricultural Science
Biocontrol Science Department

Instituto de Investigaciones Fármaco-Bioquímicas
La Paz, Bolivia

Sarah writes:

Dear TWiM-ologists,

You know how sometimes you run across a word or phrase which sounds like it's got a specific meaning that's really important to the context of whatever you're reading or hearing?

Well, I've been catching up with episodes 27-29 lately, and true to TWi form, the phrase "type III secretion" got the gears crankin'. The phrase sounded significant but I didn't remember learning about secretion mechanisms under this framework in undergrad 10 years ago. I did a little reading and wanted to share how fascinating these mechanisms are and how relevant they seem to be for many common human pathogens. Depending on the bug, the product, and the environment, these guys can deliver a variety of toxins into the extracellular environment, spit out antibiotics and other compounds, or deliver proteins or nucleic acid directly into target cells via injection or vesicles. What a spectacular array of intricate and elegant mechanisms - as Dr. Schmidt would say, "Remarkable!"

It's fitting that these podcasts are award-winning. They always nurture curiosity and prompt trains of thought into unexplored territory.

The discussion about TUNEL and apoptosis in episode 29 reminded me of a suggestion for pick of the week - A couple of music videos that Roche released in 2009 to promote some new lab tools to measure viability and cytotoxicity. They're more for tissue culture than microbiology, but hilarious nonetheless.

(in case the above links don't work: http://www.roche-applied-science.com/usa/celldeathtour/)

Stephen writes:


Horizontal transfer between blogs.


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