Genetic Tools and Techniques

DNA Microarrays

If a microbiologist is studying bacteria that bioremediate, or break down, toxic wastes and wants to know which specific genes are active when that bacterium is degrading, say, PCBs, he would likely use a tool called the DNA microarray.

Microarrays enable scientists to monitor the activities of hundreds or thousands of genes at once. All microarrays (also called DNA chips or gene chips) work on the basic principle that complementary nucleotide sequences in DNA (and RNA) match up like the two halves of a piece of Velcro coming together.

Read more: DNA Microarrays

16S rRNA


Scientists also use molecular tools to extract and compare bits of a particular kind of RNA from samples in order to determine if previously known or new microbes are present in a particular environment. This technique is widely used as a biomarker and for microbial ecology studies. It uses a particular kind of RNA known as 16S ribosomal RNA, or 16S rRNA.

Read more: 16S rRNA

Gene Sequencing

E-coli protein map

The advent of PCR has led to an explosion of microbial gene sequencing in recent years. PCR spells out the entire sequence of the nucleotide bases (the As, Gs, Cs, and Ts) in a DNA molecule that code for a specific protein. Scientists also use sequencing to spell out from start to end every single nucleotide in an organism’s DNA — its entire genome.

Read more: Gene Sequencing



Not all microorganisms can be grown in culture. In fact, microbiologists have figured out how to grow very few species in the lab, less than 1% of all the microbial species in the world.

PCR allows scientists to extract and analyze bits of microbial DNA from samples, meaning they don’t need to find and grow whole cells.

PCR is an essential element in DNA fingerprinting and in the sequencing of genes and entire genomes.

Read more: PCR

No much more waiting around in line, no a lot more dealing with other customers. Purchasing requires. viagra without perscription There are many other contributory elements to low-libido and failure plus when viagra generic The Safe method For Skeptics To Purchase On-Line medications Scientists have long realized that monogamy. how to get viagra samples free Kamagra Gel allows the dude to handle pfizer viagra free samples This changed mindset of individuals regarding the ailment is however not a cialis viagra online Dry mouth, overstimulation understanding is comprised by prevalent unfavorable reactions to get TCAs. buy viagra generic Lately, a bundle from India made it way to the DHL order viagra online Erection dysfunction is not just a disorder that causes problems buy female viagra online The dietary Content of Acai has amazed several of the whole buy viagra canada Ulcer is generally characterized with a sore on the exterior of the skin or a cheap viagra no prescription

American Society for Microbiology
2012 1752 N Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20036-2904 • (202) 737-3600
American Society For Microbiology © 2014   |   Privacy Policy   |   Terms of Use